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Serais ol Pennsylvania. _. __ 1_ 

MANSFIELD UNWERSITV LIBRARY 



3 3098 00129 5117 




Brown 
Minerals of Pennsylvania 



Topographs and Geologic Survey 
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Report No. 9. 



Minerals of Pennsylvania 



\M()S Pi IIROWN 
FREDERICK EHRENFELD 



HARBISBURG, PA.: 

I WU'.Y KAV, STATE I'llINTEB 

1913 




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poihm;kaphic WD geologic survey 

I <>M MISSION 



UliinnliiK. Pa, 






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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page. 

Letter of Transmission, 9 

[ntroduction, 11 

Abrasives : ... 13 

Buhrstone 14 

Grindstones, Millstones 14 

1 1 it i' 14 

tinphibolc and Pyroxene, 15 

10 

17 

18 

W 

19 

ilium minimi* 20 

20 

21 

21 

22 

23 

23 

23 

24 

25 

27 

27 

28 

28 

28 

30 

31 

35 

39 

39 

Ic Is 40 

42 

1 1 45 

47 

of Pennsylvania, 56 

56 

m 59 

60 

61 



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6 

Page. 

Feldspar, 61 

Uses of, 63 

Occurrence iu Pennsylvania , 63 

Fluorite-, ". 64 

( farnet , 65 

Uses of, 65 

Localities in Pennsylvania, 65 

Gas, Natural, '••• 66 

Glass Materials, 67 

Glass Pot Clay, 67 

Gold, 68 

Granite, 68 

Graphite, 69 

Greenockite, 70 

Iron Ores, 71 

In Pennsylvania , 71 

Lead and Zinc 82 

Limestone, lame and Cement Rock, 83 

Classification of - 84 

Uses of, 84 

Magnesium Minerals, 95 

Manganese Minerals 96 

Marble 98 

Marl, 100 

Mica, 100 

Mineral Paints, 103 

Molybdenum and Tungsten, 112 

Nickel and Cobalt, 113 

Petroleum , 11* 

Phosphate Minerals, 116 

Potash and Saline Minerals, 117 

Salt 118 

Pyrite and Marcasite 120 

Quartz, 121 

Serpentine, 123 

Shales, 125 

Silica , 127 

Silver, 134 

Slate, 134 

Strontium Minerals 136 

Talc, 137 

Titanium Minerals, 138 

Tourmaline, 138 

Trap, 139 

Uraniun 140 

Radium Minerals, 141 

Zircon , 143 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page. 

1 23 

\ Residua] limestone clay dug for brick in a quarry at York. 

This clay was formed by subaerial decay of the limestone. Photo- 
graphed by !•'. Ehrenfeld. 
B tipper surface of the limestone after the clay has been removed to 
make brick. The knob of limestone is about six feet high. PhotO- 
• i in r Ehrenfeld. 

II 33 

\ II Hint clay, showing typical grain and fracture. From 2J 

i of Bine Bell, Clearfield County. 

from Wcsl Cnrwensville, Clearfield County. 

> Ml 38 

Manufacturing Company's works, at Kit- 

Miiniifnrturing Company's quarry, at Kit- 

42 

Pel m sylvan in. 

in horizoiu.il 
"ii removed by 

1 : i 'enter, Wash- 
■ ■ I II inches. Photographed 

1 1 iliution of coals by fuel ratios, 50 

Lis Ridge Coal Field, 51 

85 

|ll nin, I ni York for lime and building stone. There is eon- 

rnble Hlntj mber in this limestone, which is in spots altered 

Photographed by F. Ehrenfeld. 
,1 in Coplay limestone, at Coplay. 

\ l M 86 

\ \ low in .Valency's quarry at Milroy, Mifflin County. Enormous quan- 
the stone have been shipped to Pittsburg for blast furnace 
Photographed by F. Ehrenfeld. 

B I Imesl and shales with some sandstone on the Monongahela River 

opposite the town of California. The cliff is about 100 feet high. 
Photographed by F. Ehrenfeld. 

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8 

Pago . 
Plate IX. Map of a portion of Beaver Valley and Vicinity, showing outcrop 

of Vanport limestone, 90 

Plate X. Map of a portion of the Allegheny Valley and vicinity, showing 

outcrop of Vanport limestone, 91 

Figure 1. Map showing the Area of the Pittsburg coal bed in Pennsylvania, 44 



LETTER OF TRANSMISSION. 



To the Topographic and Geologic Survey Commission: — ■ 

Gentlemen:— I have the honor to transmit herewith the Manu- 
script and Illustrations of a report on the Minerals of Pennsylvania, 
prepared by Dr. Amos P. Brown, with the assistance of Dr. Frederick 
Elirenfeld, and recommend its publication as Report No. 9. 

The preparation of 1his report was authorized in response to a 
demand for a brief account of the useful minerals of the State, and 
those most likely to prove of value, with references to the localities 
where the same are known. 

This report does not pretend to be au extensive and complete ac- 
count of any of the various minerals of the State, but presents in 
brief such information regarding them as will prove of immediate 
value, and form the basis of a more extended study by those especially 
interested in any particular lines. Relatively brief mention is made 
of coal, both anthracite and bituminous, each of which will require 
many times the entire space given to this report, but the short gen- 
eral statement concerning coal will be found of interest. 

More detail is given to some of (he more important of the mineral 
products, concerning which less is generally known. 

It is believed [his report will prove of value in all parts of the 
Siate, being in tje nature of a guide to our vast mineral wealth. 

Respectfully submitted, 

RICHARD R. HICE, 
January 31, $13. State Geologist. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



Tlie years passed since; the (•(inclusion of the Second Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania have shown no cessation in the mineral in- 
dustry of the State. On the contrary the extension of exploitation 
and the activity of the miner, clay worker, quarryinan and builder 
have made vast increase in both production and consumption of our 
mineral wealth. 

Wlial (his wealth really is it may be well to allow r disinterested 
persons outside the State to say. We quote from the United States 
Geological Survey Press Bulletin of December, 1912. 



"rKXXSYLVANIA LEADS IN MINERALS." 

outranks all other States in the value of its mineral 

In 1911 the. State contributed, exclusive of pig iron, 24.7 per cent. 

ii .it output of the United States. The reason for Pennsyl- 

li primarily, according to the United States 

. In Ii' (real production of coal. It is almost exclusively 

over one-third of the total bituminous 

i in New York, in the value of its 

i producer in cement, coal, coke, 

nd building stone." 

|d in rolled Into a m what compact form 

■ I wealth. It is not Intended 

perl alone Inn is designed as far 

■ iiiainied wiiii the details of tech- 

i<l while ii i-- imi possible in all cases to avoid the 

loped Ihat it may be the means of giving 

imi i" our citizens and afford them some means of 

out uh.ii our mineral wealth is, and where to look for the 

n is designed to show where certain forms of mineral 

ne prohablj not lo lie found; this is in some respects as im- 

iih knowing where they can be had, as too often persons are 

nidi unprofitable expenditure of money by looking- for mineral 

where there is no probability of their existence. This is 

imi n I ways possible to avoid, but in the main the sources of our min- 

wealth are already outlined in occurrence and any further in- 

• in production is more likely to be obtained by the careful con- 

i i if what we now have, than by the discovery of new deposits. 

(ID 



12 

It can not be too strongly impressed upon the consuming public, 
as well as upon the producer, that "eternal vigilance" is as much the 
price of wealth and energy as it is said to be of liberty. Our min- 
eral resources, vast as they are, are not after all inexhaustible and 
it is a matter of the utmost importance that we "take stock" of 
what we now possess, consider the best and most economical means of 
mining it, quarrying it or using it. with the least possible amount 
of waste. When we consider that the whole vast fabric of modern 
industrialism is entirely dependent upon energy derived, in prac- 
tically all cases, from coal, and that the coal supply is not of end- 
less amount, it seems only a matter of common prudence to mine and 
use our coal with the most careful consideration. 

Yet as an actual fact there is enough illuminating gas or power 
producing gas wasted in our coke ovens in one day to light, heat 
and supply with power many a large American municipality for an 
entire week. It would seem to be advisable to have some sort of a 
State investigation as to what means may be best devised to con- 
serve the mineral wealth of our State and to preserve or prolong its 
life as much as ]>ossible. For many of the details of this Report we 
aie under especial obligation to the State Geologist who has taken a 
constant interest in its preparation. 



13 



ABKASIVES. 



The qualities which make a mineral or rock valuable for abrasive 
or grinding purposes are first of all hardness, and in addition, habits 
of breaking known among mineralogists as fracture and cleavage. 
These differ from each other in that cleavage is a manner of breaking 
in certain exact, definite directions in accordance with the natural 
laws of crystal growth, whereas fracture is breaking in no definite 
shape or flat surface. A common manner of fracture as seen in 
quartz, for example, is in rather wavy, rounded, concentric surfaces 
known as conchoidal fracture; whereas the gem diamond, while the 
hardest known substance, breaks along cleavage lines in very definite 
directions. 

The value of cleavage and fracture in abrasives is that because of 
them the mineral substance presents under use a succession of fresh 
surfaces and cutting edges, (bis is notably the case with garnet. 

Corundum wheels have to be sharpened somewhat, for though 
ibis substance is harder by several points than garnet, it is also 
tougher and does not cleave or fracture as readily. If the mineral 
is hard and the grains break in such a manner that instead of becom- 
ing rounded good cutting edges are kept exposed, the abrasive 
efficiency is high. This efficiency is measured by the amount of 
abrasion upon a given surface in a given time. Minerals are judged 
as to hardness by a definite scale of ten. This is aside from the 
cleavage or breakage. The diamond is the hardest natural substance 
known, but it also is somewhat easily broken. The softest is num- 
ber one. 

SCALE OF HARDNESS. 

No. 1 — Talc, (soapstone). 

" 2 — Gysum. 

" 3— Calcite. • 

" 4 — Fluorite. 

" 5 — Apatite. 

" 6 — Orthoclase feldspar. 

" 7 — Quartz (flint, agate, chert). 

" 8 — Topaz. 

" 9 — Corundum (ruby, sapphire). 

" 10— Diamond. 

Some garnets arc said, for example, to have "a hardness of 7.5"; 
lli is means harder (ban quartz but not so hard as topaz which is 8. 



14 

The natural abrasives found in this Stale are Buhrstones and Mill- 
stones, both forms of sandstone <>r quartz rock. 
Orindaton.es — sandroek. 
Garnet. Hardness, fi to 7.."). 

Quartz, in crushed or ground state: Hardness, 7. 
Flu/spar. Hardness, (i. 
Corundum ("emery"). Hardness, 9. 

LOCALITIES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

Buhrstone is a term applied to rocks which are usually coarse 
grained sandstones, or conglomerate; other rocks known as chert are 
also called buhrstones. 

Above the Vanpori limestone (which see for locality I lies at times 
a flinty layer known as buhrstone. The production in Pennsylvania 
is small. 

Grindstones, Millstones are made np of natural quartz rock (sand- 
stone or conglomerates), with enough strength of body to stand the 
wear and tear of grinding. The Carboniferous staudstones of West- 
ern Pennsylvania and the massive sandstones of the Medina forma- 
tion are used. Near Milroy, Lewistown and other old communities 
in the Kishacoquillas Valley of Mifflin County there were a few years 
ago, when the locality was visited by one of the writers (E), a num- 
ber of flour mills using millstones said to have been made from the 
sandstones I Medina i of the Seven Mountains near by. 

Millstones are produced at present at Kast Earl and Lincoln, Lan- 
caster County. 

Emery is not produced in this State but corundum is; the other 
materials used as abrasives are described under their several heads. 
Pplishing ami grinding sands are made from quartz, feldspar, corun- 
dum, hematite (jewellers' rouge I ; sands for polishing glass are found 
in some of the river beds in the western pari of the State, (see under 
Sand). Crushed sandstone is also used for the same purpose. 

ALLANITE. 

This is one of the so-called "rare earth" minerals, that is, those 
which carry cerium, yttrium, lanthanum, etc.; it has some radio 
activity and has attracted some attention on that account. 

It is a silicate of lime, aluminum and iron with the rare earth 
minerals named above and has been suggested as a possible material 
from which to make mantels similar to the Welsbach type. 

Allanite is a markedly heavy mineral with a bright pitch black 
or brown color. When found loose in the soil it is coated with a 
brown crust. 



15 



It has been found in Pennsylvania, at Allen town; at Pricetown, 
near Beading; at Bethlehem, in East Bradford and Coventry town- 
ships, Chester comity; at Frankford, Philadelphia. Nearly all locali- 
ties are granitic rock. 

The following analyses are from Genth's Bep. B. p. 80. 



*J 




























0> 


fi 


Q 


a 


tg 


£L 




















■ 






^ 


5 


- 



Sp. «r 

Silicic acid, 

Alumina 

(ferric <>xi.l<>, 
Ferrous oxide, 
klanganous oxide 
t leroua oxide, 
Lautfaana, ( — 
Didymia, ) 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Soda 

Potash 

Water 



81.86 
16.87 

3.5S 
L8.26 


3.S31 

1 '.I! 

9.02 
D.25 
16.68 

10.10 

r.is 

1.77 
0.09 
0.14 
2.49 


a.27 

j. in 

io. ir. 




i.n 


!"I.17 


99.87 



3.491 

:;.; SI 
II. 31 
10. S3 
7.20 

KA2 
2.70 

11. 2X 
1.23 
0.41 
1.33 
3.01 

99.06 



AMAZON STONE. (See feldspar.) 
AMETHYST. (See quartz.) 

AMPHIBOLE AND PYROXENE. 

These are mineral silicates of magnesium and iron which are some- 
Times of individual importance as in the case of Asbestos, which is 
a variety of Amphibole. 

AnthophyUite is another variety of Amphibole which occurs at 
times also in a fibrous form. The rocks known as diabase, gabbro and 
in general as "traps" contain pyroxene, in consequence of which they 
are very tough and hard to break, as is the case with practically all 
varieties of Amphibole and Pyroxene. 

A bright vivid green variety of amphibole sometimes called 
smaragdite is found at Mineral Hill, near Media, in Delaware county; 
smaragdite is sometimes used as a gem. While these amphiboles and 
pyroxenes are of great mineralogical interest they are seldom' of 
much individual importance, in any commercial way, except as above 
noted. 

Hornblende, a black or dark green variety of amphibole, is a promi- 
nent mineral in some of the older gneisses and schists; it is found 
also in association with magnetite and hematite iron ores and their 
adjacent rocks in some of the South Mountain ore deposits. It is not, 
however, to be taken as an indication of iron. 



APATITE. (See phosphate minerals.) 



16 
ASBESTOS. 

Two different minerals are used under the name Asbestos, the one 
is a fibrous variety of a mineral known as Amphibole, a magnesium 
silicate, Mg 3 Sio 3 , containing no water. 

The other is a fibrous variety of serpentine known as Chrysotile, 
which is a magnesium silicate chemically united with water, H 4 Mg 3 
(Sio 3 ) 2 . 

In the blow pipe flame the fibres of amphibole will fuse to a clear 
glossy bead; the chrysotile blackens and crumbles or may sinter 
slightly to a black mass. 

There are three commercial types of asbestos — cross fiber, slip 
fiber and mass fi.ber — distinguished by the form of the mass. The 
most valuable asbestos fiber occurs in cross-fiber veins. The fiber 
runs directly across the vein from side to side. Its length is thus 
limited by the width of the vein and ranges from one-sixteenth of an 
inch to two inches. For the most part the veins of asbestos separate 
easily from the country rock and when broken across expose the 
fluffy asbestos fiber with the sheen of silk. Slip fiber occurs along 
slipping planes or faults and shows the direction of the motion. Most 
of the slip-fiber asbestos is of low grade. 

All asbestos is of secondary geological origin, and it may be de- 
rived by alteration from a variety of rocks generally rich in mag- 
nesium silicates. Some of it, however, is derived from impure dolomite 
limestone. Rocks originally rich in the magnesium silicates are by 
far the most important source, they alter to serpentine and under 
favorable conditions give rise to asbestos. The purer the serpentine 
the more likely it is to contain asbestos. It is claimed for the 
chrysotile that it is less likely to contain grit than the amphibole, it 
is also tougher than the amphibole asbestos; it is the common com- 
mercial variety. 

USES. 

Asbestos is, of course, well known through its heat resisting quali- 
ties and because of this it is used largely for fire-proofing and for 
packing material around steam and other pipes. It is also manu- 
factured into boards, sheets and paper for domestic uses and for 
use around electrical wiring. In the powdered form it is used as a 
filler for paints as in Asbestine. Mixed with cements, magnesia, 
plaster of paris and similar substances, it is made into a considerable 
variety of special shapes. 

While not now commercially produced in this State it has been 
found in a number of places, some of which have been in the past 
producing localities. Various places in Chester, Delaware, Lehigh, 
Lancaster, Montgomery and other counties have shown the Amphibole 
variety. It was formerly mined near Rockdale, Delaware county, 



17 

where it occurs in quartz veins. At Mineral Hill, near Media, and at 
the soapstone quarries at Lafayette it also occurs. 

Chrysotile in beautiful silky masses has been found near Easton, 
it has been found also in Upper Providence, Radnor, Marple, and 
other townships in Delaware county. 

In general it may be looked for throughout the sepentine district. 

AZURITE. (See copper.) 

BARITE; BARYTES. 

Barite, barium sulphate (BaS0 4 ), called "Heavy Spar," is a heavy 
crystalline mineral, white when pure, and is very stable in relation 
to acids, alkalies, or corrosive gases. It is usually more or less iron 
stained and associated with clay, silica, calcium carbonate, and other 
minerals when mined, so that it has to be ground, washed, and 
bleached with acid to purify it. 

If a small fragment be fused strongly in a hot gas flame the flame 
is colored a pale yellow-green; this is a good practical test to dis- 
tinguish between barite and celestite, (the sulphate of Strontia), 
which under flame tests gives a crimson flame. 

LOCALITIES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

Barite is found in this State in the Lower Helderberg limestone 
(Lewistown limestone) in Blair, Fulton and probably other coun- 
ties; in the Cambrian in Adams (?), Franklin and to the east of the 
Susquehanna River. In Franklin county it is found in brecciated 
limestone at the Snobarger farm two miles N. E. of Waynesboro; 
also at the Lindsay farm, the Stamey farm, the Bonebreak farm, all 
in the vicinity of Chambersburg. The general average runs 95.91 to 
98.65 percentage of barium sulphate. It is usually found as heavy 
white lumps when plowing is being done. (U. S. G. S. Folio 170, 
1910, p. 18). It is found in Bucks county at New Hope; at the 
Phoenixville mines, Chester county; at Perkiomen and Jug Hollow 
mine, Montgomery county; it occurs also with the marble at Marble 
Hall ; at Fort Littleton, Fulton county ; at Heidleberg, Berks county ; 
in Sinking Valley, Blair county, and at New Brighton, Beaver 
county, along with Siderite (carbonate of iron), (Genth). McCreath 
gives analyses of Blair county barite (Rep. M. 2, p. 369, Penna. Sec. 
Geol. Survey.) The percentage of barium sulphate ranges from 95.91 
to 98.65, no strontia present. The same authority gives analyses 
from the Silas Locke farm near Fort Littleton, Fulton county, which 
show 95 or 96 percentage barium sulphate and no strontia. It is 
found also in the "Chert vein" in the Oriskany sandstone at Orbisonia, 
Huntingdon county; (Genth Rep. B. p. 238, 1875.) Barite, like 

2 



18 

Fluorspar, is at times associated with lead ores. In this State it is 
generally dug or plowed up loose in the soil. At Pineville, Berks 
county, it occurs in a vein two feet or more wide and was once opened 
under the idea it was limestone, it is in Trias red shale. 

USES OP BARITE. 

"By far the greater part of the barytes produced is consumed in 
the ground, or ground, floated, and bleached state in the manufacture 
of mixed paints. It is not satisfactory as a pigment if used alone in 
oil, for its crystalline nature renders it too transparent to give good 
hiding power, and it must be used in only moderate percentages in 
mixed paints which consist principally of the lead and zinc-white pig- 
ments in order that advantages may be secured by its use. Its use 
as an adulterant in white lead, or in any other pigment or commodity, 
is not legitimate, and should be discouraged by the producers. There 
are sufficient legitimate uses for this valuable mineral to create a 
healthy market for it if properly handled. Barytes is used also in the 
manufacture of lithopone, a very white pigment that is suited most 
particularly for interior use, in the manufacture of enamels and wall 
finishes. In the manufacture of lithopone barytes is first reduced 
from the sulphate to the sulphide of barium, and then treated with 
zinc sulphate. Zinc sulphide and barium sulphate, intimately mixed, 
is the result, forming lithopone. Barium sulphate is also obtained in 
the precipitated form (blanc fixe) which is used as a base on which 
lake colors are precipitated. Barium salts are reported to be used in 
brickmaking in order to overcome the efflorescence of bricks. 

Other uses for barytes are in the manufacture of rubber, wall paper, 
asbestos, cement, poker chips, and in tanning leather." (TT. S. Geo- 
logical Survey). 

BERYL. (Emerald, Aquamarine.) 

Beryl is a silicate of alumina with the rare element beryllium: 
glucinum. When somewhat pale blue to green it is the gem aqua 
marine, when a brilliant green and transparent it is known as em- 
erald. While not a common mineral in Pennsylvania it is apt to be 
met with in the feldspar veins as short stumpy six-sided prisms of a 
pale green or yellowish color. The Jefferis collection, now in Pitts- 
burgh, and the Oardeza collection, now in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, have some very large specimens; in the latter are some six to 
eight inches thick and eighteen or more inches long; these are not 
of good quality of color. Probably the best have been found along 
Crum Creek from Swarthmore to Chester and vicinity, in some places 
these are of fair gem (aquamarine) quality as to color, though small 
and full of cracks. Beryl is also met with in Germantown, Olney and 
other places in or near Philadelphia county. 



19 



Golden Beryl has been found in good gem quality at the Avondale 
quarries near Bwarthmore. 

BIOTITE (See mica.) 
BLUESTONE. (See sand, sandstone.) 

BRICK. 

Bricks of all sorts are made in Pennsylvania. 

For ganister brick see under silica. Sand-lime bricks are made near 
Ilumnu'lstown, Dauphin county, from brownstone in part. Bricks 
from clay are made at very many localities throughout the State; for 
shale brick see under shale. Refractory bricks of many kinds are in 
especial demand in this Slate for coke ovens, slcel furnaces, blasl 
furnaces and other forms of apparatus needing high grade refractory 
casings or linings; added to this the demand for structural (building) 
purposes makes the number of bricks produced in this Slate almost 
past count. 

Magnesite and chromite bricks are made from material obtained 
outside the State. 

Blast furnace and other slags have been used at various times to 
make bricks; also to make "slag-tile" for roofing and paving purposes. 

BROMINE. (See potash and salines.) 

BROWNSTONE. (See under silica, sand.) 

BRUCITE. (See magnesia minerals.) 

BUHRSTONE. (See abrasives.) 

BUHRSTONE ORE. (See iron ores.) 

CALCITE. (See limestone.) 

CALAMINE. (See lead and zinc.) 



CEMENT MATERIAL. 

See under limestone for the Lehigh and other cement rocks. Clay 
for white cement is dug at Mt. Holly Springs, Cumberland county. 

Blast furnace slay is used for cement, it is obtained mostly from 
Pittsburgh and vicinity. 

CHALCOCITE. 

CHALCOPYRITE, 



20 

CHROMIUM MINERALS. 
Chromite or Chrome Iron. 

Chromic iron ore is widely distributed through areas of serpen- 
tine and associated basic rocks in different parts of the United States. 
Such areas have been found in a few localities in the old metahorphic 
rocks east of the Appalachian region from New England to Georgia ; 
at various points in the Rocky Mountain region; throughout the ex- 
tent of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges in California, and at a 
few points in the Cascade Mountains. It is not found in the usual 
sedimentary rocks except in some gravels and sand. 

The main uses are in making pigments and paints from "chromates," 
in tanning leather; chromium compounds are used to some extent in 
making special alloys for steel such as ferro-chrome, and for other 
alloys such as "chromax bronze." Pyrophoric alloys used in pocket 
cigar lighters are made from chromium in part. The ore chromite is 
used for refractory furnace linings. 

Chromite in Pennsylvania is found practically contiguous with 
the Serpentine belts in Lancaster, York, Chester, Delaware, Bucks, 
Lehigh and other counties. 

In appearance the Chromite is black, shiny like pitch and by the 
unexpert is often mistaken for Pitch Blende, an ore of "Radium." It 
is heavy, hard, and when crushed or rubbed on quartz or porcelain 
forms a pale to dark brown colored powder depending on the hardness 
of the sample. At present it is not produced commercially in the 
State but has been mined, notably at the old Wood Mine at Texas, 
Lancaster county, and at mines in Elk, East Nottingham, West 
Nottingham townships in Chester county. 

The small streams and sands and gravels in the Serpentine dis- 
tricts are often full of shiny black 8-sided crystals of the Chromite 
and Magnetic iron. It would be tedious to enumerate the reported 
localities. 

Analyses of Pennsylvania Chromite (Report B, p. 43, Penna. Second Geological 

Survey.) ; 



Sp- gr., 

Chromic oxide, .. 

Alumina 

Ferric oxide 

Ferrous oxide. 
Niccolons oxide, . 
Cobaltous oxide, . 
Manganous oxide, 

Magnesia 

Silicic acid 



Total, 



51.56 
9.72 



60.S3C 
0.928 

38.952 



104.329 



4.7S0 
53 .36 
6.98 
7.41 
26.64 
0.14 
trace. 
0.39 
6. 53 



1. Chester Co. Ore, analyzed by Seyuert. 

2. Chester Co. Ore, octahedral crystals, analyzed by Starr. 

3. Woods Mine Ore. Massive, analyzed by Garrett. 

4. Chromite crystals from Hibbard's farm, Media, analyzed by Genth. 




21 

There is of course the possibility that more modern methods of 
prospecting would show valuable deposits of the ore in the Serpentine 
districts. The chief localities reported are in the vicinity of Media 
and Mineral Hill, Marple, Blue Hill, Hibbards farm, Pairlamb farm, 
and Palmer's Mill, all in Delaware county. 

In Chester county along the Octororo creek, in West Goshen town- 
ship near West Chester, in Williston township; in Lancaster county 
in the general locality of Wood's Chrome Mine and extending out 
from there to the Octororo and south into Maryland. This bell is 
also said to run over into York county, where Chrome ore is re- 
ported. 

A number of mines have been opened in Chester county in addition 
to the places above given; they are practically all in the "While Bar- 
rens" of East and West Nottingham townships. In Delaware county 
mines were formerly worked at Marple and in Middletown townships. 
There is a good supply of chromite in many of the Pennsylvania mines 
but it is not as good in quality as the ore from Asia Minor which is 
now imported in large quantity. 

CHRYSOCOLLA. (See copper.) 
CHRYSOTILE. (Seo asbestos.) 

CLAY. 

This is one of the most valuable of the mineral sources of wealth 
in Pennsylvania. It is not possible to do more in this report than 
touch briefly on certain aspects of the subject leaving the final con- 
sideration of clays in this State to later and more detailed study. 

Clay is a natural materia] of very wide occurrence. It has also a 
great variation in color, compactness, manner of occurrence, and use. 
It generally possesses or may be made to acquire the property of 
plasticity, by which it may be molded into a great many shapes and 
then baked or burned to a permanent form. 



COMPOSITION OP CLAY. 

Clay is generally said to be made up essentially of the mineral 
kaolinite, a silicate of aluminum, chemically united with water, thus 
H 4 ALSL<>„, or 2 IU>AU) : .2KiO, ; in which the Alumina is 39.5 per 
cent. Other common materials which may be present in clays are 
silica sand, coarse and fine; oxides and hydrates of iron, manganese 
and titanium; carbonates of lime, magnesia and iron; the alkalies, 
soda and potash, and often a considerable quantity of undecomposed 
fragments of minerals such as feldspar, garnet, mica and tourmaline. 
Phosphoric acid and organic matter are sometimes present, together 



22 

with a variable quantity of water iu addition to that chemically 
united in the kaolinite. 

Physically, clay as it is actually found in nature may be a mixture 
of an indefinite amount of kaolinite with any or all of the above im- 
purities so that it is not possible to give a definition of clay which 
will cover all cases either from the point of use or of occurrence and 
diversity of character. In a broad sense, however, it may be said 
that the term clay has come in actual practice to mean a natural 
plastic substance, or one which may be made so artificially by grind- 
ing and mixing with water, and other materials and capable of being 
subsequently baked or burned in a kiln into permanently hard forms. 
This excludes substances such as cement and concrete which harden 
or "set" without binning in a kiln after molding. 

This conception of clay includes a considerable number of plastic 
substances which are possessed of very little or no kaolinite. This 
is a subject concerning which there has been a great deal of discus- 
sion and it is possessed of some importance as it is considered by 
many authorities to be impossible to state in all cases that a sub- 
tance used and spoken of as clay consists essentially of kaolinite or 
even contains it. 

The truth seems, however, to be that some intimate union of 
alumnia, silica, and water is not only actually found in the high 
grade clays but is present up to at least leu per cent, of alumina in 
practically all other clays which are iii actual use. Adobe and loess 
with as lit He as three per cent. AU>.., are used however for brick 
making. 

ORIGIN OF CLAY. 

Clay is what is known among geologists as a secondary rock or 
mineral substance, that is, it is formed by the chemical and physical 
alteration of some other mineral aggregate which is in the majority of 
cases the so-called crystalline rocks of the type of granite, pegmatite, 
mica-schist, "trap," etc. These crystalline rocks are prevailingly made 
up of minerals which are aluminous. The alteration from the original 
rock to clay is the result of decay and transformation of mineral mat- 
ter (formed previously under the action of pressure or heat I into a 
new series of minerals which at the surface of the earth do not change 
further or decompose. The "clay" of the geologist is the final product 
of this rock decomposition where there are compounds of alumina, 
silica and water present; and as such a final product clay is not sub- 
ject to further rotting or decay. It is upon this in part that the 
value of clay depends, inasmuch as most rocks contain iron and 
other ingredients, it often happens that their alteration into clay is 
accompanied by the simultaneous formation of other natural products 
which occur as impurities in the clay. These have been mentioned 
above. 







a -° 

a g 
m 2 






s i 



9* & 

» 5- 



3. e 

CD ft 



B 



•fl g 



3 ~ 



1 E 



, , — ~~^MHH H 

'Vm 

|I; M 


u. 


I 3^1 r 



23 



RESIDUAL CLAYS. 
Sedimentary (transported) Clays. 

This day material upon formation may accumulate as a residue 
in practically the same spot as the original rock from which it has 
been formed, or it may be washed by rain into streams and trans- 
ported long distances from its place of origin; it may even eventually 
be carried out to sea and' deposited on the ocean door. The first of 
these types of clays, those occuring at the point of origin, are known 
as "residual clays;" those of the second type are known as "sedimen- 
tary" or "transported clays." The kaolins of the Brandywine district 
in Pennsylvania are examples of the first type, as are also the "lime- 
stone clays" of many places and the clays of the Great Valley in part. 
Fire clays, the red brick river clays as in Washington and other coun- 
ties, and shales which are clays compacted into hard rock form, are 
examples of the second type. Beyond these two fundamental types 
the classification of clay becomes very complex, depending upon the 
view from which the subject is approached, such as commercial use, 
mode of occurrence, chemical character, or some particular quality 
as plasticity or fusibility. 

The reason for this slate of things lies in the exceedingly diverse 
nature and quality <>!' the clays themselves; the same kind of clay 
from the point of view of use will in different localities occur in 
totally different ways, while clays of a like method of occurrence 
will be found to vary so widely in value as to make exact classification 
almost impossible. 

Classification of E. Orton St., (Ohio Geo. Sur. Vol. VII., P. 52 



High Grade Clays, 

(:M/ ( or more <>r kaolin), not oyer r»';; 

fluxing Impurities. 



Low Grade Clays. 
Kaolin from 10'; to 7096 with notable 
percentages of Busing impurities. Band 
often conspicuous. 



Kaolinlitei 

China clay 

Porcelain clay, 
Fire clay (bard), 
Fire clay (plastic). 

Potters 1 clay 

Argillaceous shale. 
Ferruginous shale. 
siiicicus clays, 

Tile clays 

Brick clays 

Calcareous shale, . 



Uses. 

Manufacture of line ware. 
Manufacture of line ware. 
Manufacture of line ware. 
Refractory materials. 
Refractory materials. 
Karflieaware. etc. 

Paving block. 

Pressed brick. 

Paving block, sewer pipe. 

Roof tile, drain tile. 

1 Pressed brick. 

1 Common brick. 



USES OF CLAYS. 



Clays are used for so many different purposes that n complete 
enumeration of these is not practicable. However, the uses may be 
grouped as follows: 



24 

1. The manufacture of pottery and porcelain. 

2. The manufacture of paving material. 

3. The manufacture of pipe and hollow ware. 

4. The manufacture of refractory materials, furnace brick, etc. 

5. The manufacture of building material. • 

6. Minor uses; these include 

clays for paint filler, 
clays for paper filling and sizing, 
clays for scouring soap. 
clays for medical ointments and plasters, 
clays for plaster cement. 

Alum shales or clays for making alums by leaching with sul- 
phuric acid, and many other purposes. 

Simple Tests Useful in Prospecting for Clayi. 

"1. A small lump of clay may be roasted in a blue gas flame, as in 
a gas stove; if a red or brown color be given to the clay, the percent- 
age of iron is high, probably 4 per cent, or more. Fire clays are low 
in iron. 

"2. By tasting a bit of the clay, bitter salts, alum and epsom, may 
be detected, or they may occur as a white coating on the outcrop of the 
clay in the bank. These salts are apt to form whitewash coats on the 
finished brick, injuring the appearance. By crushing the clay in the 
mouth the sand may be detected by the grit against the teeth. A rough 
determination of the amount of such sand may be made. 

"3. A good test for pottery clay is moistening the clay and finding 
whether it can be worked into definite shape and retain the form 
without cracking when dry. 

"4. A rough brick of small size can be made and easily dried, and 
a rough determination be made of its shrinkage. If it shrinks out of 
shape, cracks or crumbles when dry, its value is very doubtful. For 
this test the clay should be ground, thoroughly tempered with water, 
and dried slowly. 

"5. If carbonates of lime are present, a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid (muriatic) may be added, and they will be detected by the effer- 
vescence or bubbling as the carbonic acid gas passes oil'. A better plan 
is to place a lump of clay in the small amount of acid, as the clay ab- 
sorbs the liquid so rapidly that the effervescence may be overlooked. 
Good fire bricks are low in lime. 

"If there be low percentage of iron present and a higher percentage 
of lime (about three times the iron) the clay product will burn buff. 
If the high percentage of lime be due to lumps of lime carbonate, 
the brick on burning will crack and warp. Very high percentages of 
lime are apt to ruin the clay. It is not always possible to predict the 

1. West Va. Geol. Sur. Vol. 3, p. 90, 1905. 



25 

color of the burned ware from the color of the clay. Eed clays will 
usually burn red; blue clays may burn red of buff. Dark or black 
clays are usually high in organic matter and may burn red or buff. 

"6. The slaking of clays or the crumbling down in tempering is 
tested by dropping a lump of clay in a cup of water. Some clays 
slake in a very few minutes and so are easily tempered. Shales slake 
usually only after a long time and require fine grinding." 



ANALYSIS OF CLAY. 

There are two ways of expressing the composition of a clay from 
the exact chemical standpoint. One is what is known as the utimate 
analysis, the other as the rational analysis-. The respective characters 
of these two methods will be illustrated by examples of Pennsylvania 
clays. First it may be said that the ultimate analysis of a clay is 
designed to show the amount of the essential constituents silica, 
alunmia, and water (SiO,, A1,0 . and ELO) present, as well as the vari- 
ous impurities. The impurities in pari act in fluxing or fusing the 
clay when baked in the kiln. Others are inert or are objectionable 
and must be removed. 

The ultimate analysis of a clay may be expressed as consisting of 
certain percentages of the following chemical materials: 

Nun-. Chemical Formula. 

Silica SiO, 

Alumina A1,0 S 

[Ferric oxide, Fe,O s 

ILime, Cab 

Fluxing Impurities, . .-(Magnesia, MrO 

I Alkalies, (potash, K,0 

(soda Na..O 

Titanic oxide Tin.. 

Sulphur trioxide SO s 

Carbon dioxide CO« 

Water, IL.O 

The rational analysis has as its purpose the stating of the different 
minerals which may be present in a clay such as quartz, feldspar, 
kaolinite, and is particularly valuable in the case of the high grade 
porcelain and china clays. This is really the most important method 
of analysis from the practical view. 

These points may be shown as follows: 

Kaolinite when pure has the following composition: — 

Silica, SiO 4(5.50 

Alumina. ALO, 30.50 

Water, H 2 0, 14.00 

100.00 

which is a definite mineral of the formula H 4 Al 2 Si 2 0„. Compare this 
with the analysis of a kaolin from the Henry Olay mine, Cumberland 
Valley District, Pa. 



2G 



Ultimate Analysis. 



SiO„ 

AUK,, 

Fe,0„ 

CaO, 

MgO, 

K..O, . 

NajO, 

H.O, . 



Rational Analysis. 



73.30 

17.43 

0.37 

D.0'2 
1.28 
2.99 

0.17 



100.24 



56.73 



Clay 

Feldspar .64 

Sand (flint), 37.17 

H,0, 



100.00 



This shows a marked variation from the ideal composition of a 
kaolinite in its high percentage of silica and the lower percentage of 
alumnia. The rational analysis is then an attempt to restate the com- 
position of a clay in terms of the actual minerals present, which in 
Ihis case are kaolinite, the clay base; silica (flint), and feldspar. 

Other analyses of Pennsylvania clays show these (wo kinds of 
analyses. 

Analysis of Flint Clay from Mercer sliales, Koutb Fork, Pa. 1 

SiO„ 44.:i0 

A1,0, 38. :u 



Fluxing Imparities, 



lVi >, 
FeO, 
Mull, 
CaO, 

Ms<), 

S ;,.<). 

so,, . 

IL( I 100- , 



I .40 
0.71 
0.10 
0.82 
0.69 
0.22 
0.17 
trace 
.7.1 



Ignition loss, 12.17 



Rational Analysis. 



Free alumina, 
Clay siihs., .. 
Feldspar, — 



09.64 



3.88 
93.26 

2.86 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLAY. 

The exact classification of clay has already been referred to, but, 
aside from that, clays as commonly found in use may conveniently, 
though roughly, be grouped as follows, beginning with the highest 
grades: — 

1. Kaolin and china clay. 

2. Ball-clay. 

.^ ^. , f Plastic 

3. Fire clay ■ 



| Non-plastic (Hint or rock clay). 



lU, S. GeOl. Surv., Fulio 171 (.Tolm.slowii I , p. 12. 



27 

4. Tottery and stone ware clays. 

5. Paving brick and sewer-pipe clays. 
C. Tile clays. 

7. Terra cotta clays. 

8. Common brick clays. 
!). Drain tile clays. 

10. Shales, of which there arc very many grades and kinds, used 
mostly for shale-brick, pressed brick, paving brick, etc. 

11. Slip-clay, a term applied to those which at a low kiln tempera- 
ture fuse easily to a self-glazing surface, due to the high percentages 
of fluxing elements present. Slip-clays or self-glazing clays are not 
much used at present, but in former times were used in Pennsylvania 
in many small kilns to make domestic articles, especially in the east- 
ern part of the State. 

The term Kaolin is not always used as exactly as might be desir- 
able. It is however generally considered do include the clays which 
are essentially residual; which burn white, are free of fluxes or nearly 
so, and on analysis work out to nearly pure silica, alumina and water 
in a chemical union. The impurities present are apt to be free quartz 
and incompletely disintegrated feldspar or mica. 

Kaolins often pass gradually downwards into the parent rock which 
has been their source. The following analyses show the character of 
kaolins: — 



(i) 



(2) 



(3) 



Sill. 

Al,l> ; ,. ... 
¥<■-(>,.. .. 

CaO 

Mm) 

K.O 

Nu-0 

H;0 

Total, 



46.26 


62.40 


36.25 


2S.51 


1.64 


1.14 


0.19 


0.57 


0.32 


0.01 


1.69 


1 0.9K 


0.S5 


t 


13.51 


S.80 


100.71 


100.66 



47.71 
36. 7S 



2.58 
13.03 



•Moisture 0.25. 

,T. 0. Hopkins, Mi:i. Intl., vol. 7. p. lco. Kaolin from Brandywine Summit, Del. 

iWebster, N. ('. ('rule kaolin. X. ('. Qeol. Survey, Bull. 13, p. 62. 

sCoussac, Bonneval, France, r. s. Geol. Surrey, Prof. Paper 11, p. 30. 



KAOLIN IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



Kaolin is used in the trade under several meanings. It here is used 
for the commercial forms of kaolinite. It is a high grade clay, some- 
times residual and at other times a transported clay. It is nearly 
always washed before use to remove sand and coarse material. The 
chief uses are for china-ware and as a filler in paper making. 



28 



Chemical Composition of Pennsylvania Kaolins". 





O 


q 

3 


O 


d 

O 


6 


d 


o 


d 




67.71 
46.26 
51.90 
84.06 

7::. sii 
73.30 
67.10 


20.53 
36.53 
81 .28 

9.44 
17.30 

17.43 
20.10 


7.78 
1.64 

0.28 
0.35 
0.37 
3.90 


0.39 

0.19 

trace 

0.23 

0.02 
1.10 


0.01 
0.32 

1.62 

1.35 

LIS 

t.28 

0.70 


0.29 
1.69 i 0.86 
4.01 2.99 
2.37 1 0.28 
2.49 i 0.20 
2.99 1 0.17 

2 00 


3.12 


2, 


13.54 


3, 


8.90 




2.18 


5, 


4.69 




4.68 




6.90 











xBrandywine Summit 

2 Rrand,vwine Summit. 
iQleo Look. 

tMount Holly Springs, crude, 
jMount nolly Springs, refined. 
r.IIcni'v Cflay mine, refined. 
; rli.-sliiiit Hill. 

Paper Clay. The essential requirements for a good paper clay are 
white or nearly white color, slaking or falling apart readily in water, 
remaining in suspension in the pulp, and freedom from grit. The clay 
is added to give weight to the paper and a good surface for printing. 

China or Porcelain Clay. For these purposes the purest kaolins 
are needed. This clay is generally mixed with "flint" (powdered 
quartz) and feldspar for the purpose of changing the fluxing point 
and modifying the shrinkage. 



DISTRIBUTION OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Pennsylvania kaolins 1 may be divided into two distinct groups, viz: 
the Delaware and Chester county kaolins, practically all residual de- 
posits formed from the decay of pegmatite (giant granite) veins and 
the South Mountain kaolins in Cumberland, Adams, Franklin, and 
York counties. These deposits are practically all residual from the 
destructive weathering of slates or schist rocks, and this residue then 
transported and deposited as sediments. They are more extensive 
in area than the Chester-Delaware deposits. 

One of the oldest clay producing localities in the State is that near 
Kaolin P. O., Chester county, which has been worked since 1839. At 
Hockessin, Delaware, three miles from the above are similar de- 
posits. 

Brandywine Summit, Delaware county, has been noted for many 
years as a locality for high grade kaolins. There are practically two 
companies controlling these deposits, which are worked also for 
ground feldspar. Near Elam P. O., near to Brandywine Summit, is 
a deposit of white clay used in part for Are brick, as is also some of 
the Summit clay. The best of all these clays have been shipped in 
the past to the potteries of Ohio and New Jersey. Several by-products 
are worked from these deposits. These are silica sand screened from 
the kaolin and used for porcelain clay-mixing or for refractory brick. 



aProm "Kaolin." T. C Hopkins, Mineral Industry, Vol. 7, 
jSee article by T. C. Hopkins, Mineral Industry, Vol. VII, : 



p. 148. 

S9S, pp. 156. 



29 

About one and a half miles north of Glen Lock Station on the 
north side of Little Chester Valley, is situated a more recent kaolin 
mine. The clay is on the contact line between the Chester Valley 
limestone, Cambrian, and the North Valley Hills (Camhrian?) sand- 
stone. This kaolin has a striking resemblance to the deposits of the 
South Mountain district. 

THE SOUTH MOUNTAIN CLAYS. 

These are sedimentary and appear to be at the top (or near it) of 
the Cambrian sandstones, shales, and limestones. Those familiar 
with this general region will of course retail that some years since 
iron ore openings were frequent and in practically all these mines 
• lays were found in rather large amounts. These clays are at times 
very much stained with the iron, at other times the pure clay exists 
in large quantities. These deposits have not on the whole been given 
(lie attention they deserve as there are undoubtedly large quantities 
of clays suitable for tire and paving brick, stoneware, tile and pipe 
ware, and other uses. 

The clays occur'both above and below the iron ores as the strata 
are much folded and otherwise disturbed. Formerly in mining the 
ore the clays were often thrown out and have been mixed with lower 
grades. A careful search through the district mentioned would prob- 
ably yield valuable results in the way of better grades of kaolin. 
A t the following localities, however, the clays have been worked. Very 
extensive developments have been worked south of Mount Holly, on 
the Gettysburg and Harrisburg Railroad, and on the Hunter Run and 
Slate Belt branch. 

The Mount Holly deposits are among the thickest and purest of the 
South Mountain clays. They are at times quite siliceous as shown 
in the subjoined analysis by W. T. Schaller 1 . 

SiO s , 69.61 

A1,0 3 , 16.83 

l<V.O s 0.95 

CaO, 0.11 

MgO 1.51 

Na.O, 08 

K O , 3 . 41 

P,0„ 14 

Ti0 2 , 90 

i.uss on Ignition, 6.35 

99.89 

The Pennsylvania Tile Works started about 1892 a plant at Aspers. 
Clay washing plants have been worked at Latimore, Pine Grove, Dills- 
burg, and Laurel Station. A large clay working plant including wash- 
ers and refiners, by-product machinery, kilns, etc., was opened in 1898 

1 U. S. Geol. Survey, Folio 170 (Mercersburg-Chambersburg) , p. IS. 



30 

at Mount Holly Springs, Adams county. The clay lies at Upper Mill 
Station and Hunter Run. At Maple Grove, south of Mertztown, 
Berks county, occurs a clay used for kalsomine. 

These South Mountain clays have been used for wall paper, pottery, 
tile, fire brick, and the screenings also have been utilized as material 
for lire brick or as mixer for pottery making. 

OTHER RESIDUAL CLAYS IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

These might occur at almost any point in the State south of the 
glacial districts. In many of the limestone valleys of the greal moun- 
tain regions of the Slate occur deposits ot clay, residues from (tie de- 
cay of the limestones and shales of the higher ground. These have 
in many cases been washed down into the lower valley places and 
are in part transported clays suitable for brick or tile. The chief 
localities, however, for the better grades of the residual clays must 
be sought in the southeastern portions of Pennsylvania, owing to 
the occurrence there of the older feklspathic rocks which are the 
source of the besi days. In the old ore banks of the Lehigh-Berks 
districts are deposits of white clay. Variegated clays are common 
in Lancaster and York, red residual clays are known in Pcnn town- 
ship, Chester county. In the Great Valley district are greal quan- 
tities of white and variegated clays derived largely from decay of 
schists and often mixed with the residues from the decomposition of 
limestones, quartzites, slates, etc., of the Ordovician or Cambrian 
ages. The composition of one of these clays from the Hunter Mine, 
Kemp farm, is as follows: 

Analysis of Clay from Hunter Mine.' 

Silicii (Si(>..), 60.17 

Alumina (Al..(>,) 19.89 

Iron protoxide (FeO), 0.783 

Lime (CaO) (1.2(1 

Magnesia (MgO), 1.902 

Alkalies (K..(», (Na,0), etc, 6.211 

Water (H>0), 4.7S4 

100.000 

Residual Clan* are most largely produced in the following coun- 
ties: Adams. Berks, Blair, Chester, Cumberland, Delaware, Lancaster, 
Lehigh and York. 

SURFACE OR PLEISTOCENE CLAYS. 

Drift Clay; River Clay; Terrace Clay. These are clays which grade 
more or less into each other in nianer of occurrence and character. 
They are often referred to as Surface or Pleistocene clays. In Penn- 
sylvania they may occur in nearly all parts of the State. As a class 
they are rather impure and sandy and are frequently used lor com- 
mon brick making, though where they are homogeneous and pure 

'Eles, U. S. Owl. Survey, Prof. Paper 11, p. 209. 



31 



enough they may be used for making pottery. The drift clays or 
moraine clays are to be looked for in the northern parts of the State 
above the line of the glacial moraine. They arc irregular in occur- 
rence, often stony, though at times they are represented by line 
grained clays, known as bowlder clays, which are whitish, reddish, or 
blue in color. In the valleys of the Ohio, Beaver, Allegheny, and oilier 
rivers and streams in the western part of the State, are to be found 
occurrences of these glacial drift clays laid out in terrace form. These 
are known as "terrace-clays" and are used for making terracotta, 
flower pots, bricks, and so on. Analyses of these terrace clays from 
New Brighton, Pa., have been published 1 by A. S. McCreath as follows: 

a) (2) 

Silica, SiO 46.160 07.7SO 

Alumina, AI.O,, 26.97 16.290 

Sesquioxide of iron, Fe,0„ 7.214 4.. WO 

Titanic oxide, Tio,, 740 0.780 

Lime CaO, ". 2.210 0.600 

Magnesia MgO, 1 .620 .727 

Alkalies, f .'1.246 2.001 

Water H.O H.220 6.340 

9il.2S(j Oil. OSS 

These are high in fluxes as may readily be seen and hence are used 
for vitrified wares. These clays are found on the fourlh terrace above 
the bed of the Ohio River. 2 

Alluvial Clays, those found along beds of rivers in the flats and 
river banks are very common and of great use, particularly for the 
making of bricks. These clays occur east along the valleys of the 
Delaware and other streams and are the source of much of the highly 
famous "Philadelphia pressed brick." In the western part of the 
Slate practically all the river valleys supply large quantities of brick 
clay. Along the Monongahela River fiats these clays have been 
worked for many years as at Monongahela, California, and Charleroi 
in Washington county, and similarly in Allegheny, Armstrong, 
Beaver, Fayette, Greene and Westmoreland counties. 

Fire Clay. This term, like kaolin, has unfortunately come to be 
used in popular speech erroneously. Properly speaking the term "fire 
clay" means a material which will resist file or heat. The most im- 
portant single character of fire clays is refractoriness, which means 
in this case, or should mean, fusion at a point not less than 3000° F. 
(1050° C.) or thereabouts. Fire clays are usually low in fluxing and 
coloring impurities; become white upon calcination, and in short arc 
high grade clays and belong properly speaking among the kaolins as 
to refractory character. Fire clays are frequently, though not neces- 
sarily, of sedimentary (that is transported) origin, and hence popular 
conception has taken all of the clays which underlie the coal beds as 
fire-clays, irrespective of whether or not they are refractory. If some 

•Second Geol. Survey "f Pa. Rep, M. 2. p. 857. 

-These clays are related to the earlier Kansan OT pre-Kansan drift, ami not to tlie deposits 
of the last, or Wisconsin iee invasion. (It. It. H. ) 



32 

limit of refractoriness is not used upon fire-clay, the term will be- 
come meaningless. Fire clays are divided into two sorts, non-plastic 
clays known commonly as flint-clay, and plastic fire-clay. The flint 
clays often show a very hard character which is increased by air 
drying, and break with semi-circular fractures like pitch or glass, and 
even on thorough grinding show little or no plasticity. The plastic 
fire clays do not differ necessarily in appearance from other clays 
which are plastic, but chemical analysis shows a practical approxi- 
mation to kaolin and they are of equal value for refractory quality. 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FIRE CLAY. 

Fire clays contain in an exact chemical analysis traces or appre- 
ciable quantities of the elements usually shown in an ultimate analy- 
sis, such as the fluxing elements, magnesia, lime, iron and alkalies; 
excess of quartz, that is silica not chemically combined with alumina 
and water, may be present. If this silica is high, even with low 
amounts of fhixing elements, the clay upon heating may fuse and come 
in strict classification outside the limits of refractory clays. 

Flint clays in a rational analysis show usually a high content of 
clay substance (kaolinite) with free quartz, free alumina, or free 
feldspar, the last in small quantities, 1 to 2 per cent. The following 
analysis *by Lord of a clay from the Lower Kittanning of Ohio (Min- 
eral Point clay) shows the character of flint fire clay of great excel- 
lence, with very low fluxing content: 

Combined silica, 35.39 

Aluinii! •'. 31.84 

Combined water 11.68 

Percentage kaolinite base, 78.01 

Free silica 17.13 

Titanic acid 1,68 

Sandy material (total) 18.81 

Scsquioxide of iron, 0.07 

Lime ! . 50 

Magnesia 0.19 

Potasb, 0.59 

The Physical Properties of fire-clays show a wide range in plastic- 
ity, color, shrinkage, texture, hardness, and so on. The color of a fire 
clay may run from white and light yellow through reds and browns 
to black. The black or dark grey color of many so-called fire clays 
from under the coal beds is not a definite indication of a refractory 
clay, since the dark color, due in part often to organic matter, may 
cover up the iron fluxing elements present. Nearly all Pennsyl- 
vania fire clays are located under coal beds and derive their names 
from these well known coal beds. Refractory clays in Pennsylvania 
are found also in the Cambrian and Ordovician I Silurian) formations 
of the southeastern part of the State. They are found often as the 
decomposition products from schists, slates, and limestones. 

•Ohio Geol. Survey, vol. 7, p. 66. 



34 

off pieces of any size. After being out in the weather a long time 
it tends to become more brittle, so that a sharp blow with a heavy 
hammer on a block a foot cube may break it into a hundred pieces. 
but each little piece has all the sharp edges and the conchoidal faces 
of a piece of quartz flint broken down under similar conditions. 
The geologist unacquainted with the rock hardly hesitates to call 
it limestone on general appearance until he has tested it with 
acid. 

The rock is not all of the high grade described, either chemically 
or physically. The lower figure of Plate II is from a photograph 
of a specimen of what is known as nodular clay. This as a rule will 
make brick of only second grade. Flint clay, as is well known, is 
non-plastic, and must be mixed with a certain percentage of plastic 
clay in order to be moulded into bricks. The percentage of plastic 
clay varies according to the use to which the tire brick is to be put. 
or the grade of fire brick being made, and also with the refractory 
qualities of the plastic clay. The occurrence of flint clays is a ma tter 
that has been but little discussed in reports or text books. In some 
cases the flint clay occurs as a deposit sharply delimited by rocks 
of quite different character, but it usually occurs associated with 
shales and clays somewhat similar in physical aspect. In some 
cases the limits of the two associated deposits are sharply drawn. 
In other cases they are not. In some cases it would appear to be 
an original deposit in the regular sequence of layers; in others it 
would appear to be a secondary alteration deposit" 

Analyses of Selected Specimens of Flint Clays, Kaolinite and Iudianaite. 



Silica (SiO.) 

Alumina (Ai,0,), 

Iron oxide (FeiOs) 

Titanium oxide (TiO), .. 

Wine (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Alkalies, 

Water and organic matter, 



1 


2 


3 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


42.700 


43.350 


44.560 


37. •100 


87.650 


39.000 


2.385 


2.145 


1.440 


2.500 




1.700 


.112 


.084 


.028 


,270 


.234 


.072 


.730 


.235 


.530 


13.840 


14.170 


13. TOO 



Per Cent. 
46.4 

39.7 



Sili.-a (St CM, 

Alumina CAUOg), 

Iron oxide (FeaOa) , 

1 Itanium oxide (TiO) 

l/nie iCaO) , 

Magnesia (MgO), 

Alkalies 

Wuier and organic matter, 



5 


6 


7 


Per ('eiit. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


44.75 


46.75 


44.60 


88 81 


88.17 


40.65 


.95 


.29 


.80 1 


.37 


.57 


.27 


.30 

.35 

US.17 


.12 

.07 

14.03 






1 1,28 



Per Cent. 
43.19 
41.60 



.15 

.06 

.4.5 

13.48 



35 

Nos. 1 to 3, upper, middle and lower portions of bed 2\ miles 
west of Blue Ball, Clearfield county, Pa. (McCreath, Second Geologi- 
cal Survey of Pennsylvania, volume H, page 121). No. 4, theoretical 
composition of kaolinite; No. 5, composition of indianaite, Lawrence 
county, Indiana (Noyes) ; No. 6, flint clay, Garter county, Ky. ; No. 
7, Gaylord flint clay, Sciota county, O. ; No. 8, Stone City flint day, 
Stone City, Ky. (Nos. 5 to 8, Twenty-ninth Ann. Kept. Dept. of 
Geology, Natural Resources Indiana, 1904, p. 392). The indianaite 
is a pure white deposit of a hydrous aluminum silicate. It occurs 
at the base of the coal measures in Indiana, and apparently has a 
somewhat similar origin to the flint clays. The Carter county, Ky., 
clay is probably from Olive Hill. It is a matter of some interest 
Ilia I the Olive Hill clay, as does that from Sciotaville, also occurs 
at the base of the coal measures. In that part of Kentucky and 
Ohio it there underlies the massive Sharon sandstone or conglom- 
erate just as the indianaite underlies the massive Mansfield sand 
stone oi- conglomerate of approximately or quite the same age. The 
mailer is of interest as suggesting the possibility of a closer rela- 
tion ship between the indianaite and flint clays than is suggested 
by the analyses alone." 

TRANSPORTED OR SEDIMENTARY CLAYS IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



The geological formations of the State range from the Pleistocene 
sands and clays along the Coastal Plain; the glacial and late non- 
glacial sands, gravels, and clays of the northern counties of the State, 
and of the streams and rivers both east and west; through the great 
series of rock formations, the Carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian. 
Ordovician, Cambrian and the altered, crystalline slates and schists 
of older origin. While rocks of a general clay character may be 
found in practically all of these series of formations it is in the 
Carboniferous series that the great clay deposits are found. It is not 
practicable to consider these in detail in this report. Clay is found 
under practically every coal bed in the State, some of this "clay" is 
in reality shale in the strict sense of the term and represents a wide 
range of physical, and chemical differences. 

The Pottsville carries the Sharon and Mercer clays, correlated with 
the very valuable Mt. Salvage clays of Maryland. 

The A llegheny carries a number of clays, some of which are among 
the most valuable mineral resources of the State; from the bottom 
up these are: — Brookville, Lower Clarion, Upper Clarion, Lower, 
Middle, and Upper Kittanning Clays, Lower Freeport, Bolivar, and 
Upper Preport. 

The Conemaurjh is characterized rather by shales than clays; these 
are worked for shale brick. 



36 

The clays of the upper portions of the coal measures are hut little 
exploited, the "main clay" of the Pittsburgh bed, 8 iuches thick is 
worked at Courtney and Manown for forms for Open Hearth and 
Bessemer steel furnaces. (Pa. Geol. Survey.) 

Practically all the plastic clays are from the Allegheny and Potts- 
ville. 

The Oonemaugh carries a flint clay worked at Layton, and also the 
Lower and Upper Mahoning clays in Lawrence, Beaver, Clearfield, 
Cambria, Indiana and Jefferson counties, and elsewhere. 

"Mt. Savage Fire Clay (Mercer). The lowest fire clay, and one of 
the best, if not the best in the State, occurs in the Mercer group of 
coals, it has long been worked at Ml. Savage, Maryland, and the 
clay from that point has established a deservedly fine reputation. 
In Pennsylvania it has probably been longest and most extensively 
mined in Clearfield county. It was for a long time mined on Sandy 
Ridge in Centre county, but the works there now are supplied from 
near Burly in Clearfield county. It is extensively worked at Wood- 
laud and in the region west of Blue Ball, around Burly, and be- 
tween Burly and Blue Ball. It is found widely scattered all over 
the upland made by the McCartney anticline between Clearfield 
creek and the Pennsylvania Railroad to the east, as well as west 
of Clearfield creek. West of Clearfield syncline the coal is brought 
up again, and is mined in a large way west of Curwensville, west of 
Stronach, and at many points up Anderson creek on both sides. It 
also occurs in the valley of the west branch of the Susquehanna for 
several miles above Curwensville. As usual the clay is irregular, 
sometimes reaching a thickness of up to 18 feet, but more often being 
only G feet or less. In places the clay is all flint, and in others the 
flint clay runs out altogether. There is usually some soft clay with 
Hie hard clay, generally overlying, but often both above and below 
the hard clay. Over the soft clay is the Mercer coal, which runs from 
a few inches to 2\ feet. In general, the analyses of these clays as 
obtained by McCreath show from 44 to 46 per cent, of silica, 34 
to 39 per cent, of alumina, 1.8 to 3.5 of iron oxide, to 2.5 of titanium 
oxide, 1.06 to 3.02 of lime, .126 to .573 of magnesia, .830 to 5.75 of 
alkalies, and 4.885 to 14.170 of water. 

This clay is mined at St. Charles and Climax, on Red Bank creek 
in Clarion and Armstrong counties, where analyses indicate as high 
a grade of clay as in Clearfield county. At St. Charles the clay as 
a whole has a thickness of from 8 to 10 feet, the flint clay varying 
as usual with the soft clay. At Climax the bed is 12 feet, composed 
of flint and soft clay in varying proportions. As a rule the flint 
clay makes up about one-third of the bed. From its position low 
down in the series this horizon has a very limited outcrop in the 
area under discussion." 1 * 

'•Top. and Geol. Survey Commission, Report of 1906-08, p. 322. 



37 

While tlie chemical analyses of a clay does not definitely determine 
its value, the following tables, showing the composition of clays 
from a number of localities, will be of value. 

Analyses of Brookville Clays. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Sin. 


I7..42 
36.80 
3.33 
...„, 

.87 
12.65 


45.65 
31.73 
3.546 

".112 

.619 

9.65 


8.70 

'".MB 

.at 

.985 
13.05 


(5.S2 
3.33 

'".112 

.573 
1.18 

10.13 


74.95 
15.94 

.106 

.407 

1.750 

4.885 


42.7 
37.1', 

.270 

.73 

13.84 

2.50 


43.35 

'i'.i« 

'".084 

.231 

.-:;. 
14.17 

2.825 


44.55 


1,1 l, 


B.00 


FeO 

(nil 


1.44 
"".028 


MgO 


.072 


HaO ) 


.63 
13.66 






Tin 

Ml 

FoSi 


1.70 



9 


10 


46.25 


45.45 


37.50 


36.128 




'i'.iih 


.168 


.168 




.312 


1.116 


1.29 


13.51 


13.73 





11 


12 


13 


11 


15 


16 


17 

11.11 


1 .7,!l 

.48 
1.67 
4.163 

"tr" 


is 
"9" 

"!ii" 

.187 

9.39 

.88 


• 
19 

68.48 
18.46 

l!c«t 

"ia' 

.651 
6.31 

2.ir, 


20 


r..'i 

Mill 


45.28 
38.03 

".i«i 

237 

ts.oot 


Hi. IS 

".173 
.317 

2.7ii 

11.68 


14.46 

"i'.iji 

'".17? 
.156 
.71) 

13.2S7 

"tr'.' 


4 1.047, 

"*.ii - 

".077, 

.117, 
.72 

14. US 

"tr!' 


'3.234 

"'.tin 

' ' !068 
.003 


27,. in; 

'j'.fl 

'".089 
.466 

9.09 

tr" 




















Tin. 





l. Fire clay, Johnstown, Cambria County, Second Pennsylvania Qeol. Snrv. Rent. 1111, pg. 147. 
■ Fire clay, Sandyrldge, Clearfield Oonnty. Top layer need ror fi terns. 

:: Second Layer, b locality. Used for bricks. 

Ird layer, same locality. Daed fur Hies and Inwalla of furnace, 

1 !, ■ ■ ' 1 i'iiv. Sandy and not usfji eel thick. Indem. Kept. 11 

.: Upper or "Shell clay" from shaft o) Barrla Firebrick Co., I of Blueball 

Middle or Blocs elay, sumo place. Ibid. 
B Lower or "Flag clay," same locality; 'i to 8 feet. Ibid. 

From south Bide of Roaring Run Brook, near Woodland Station. Iiml 128. 

10 North side of Roaring Rnn Brook, three-fourths mile weal of Woodland Station, 
to -", feet luiril 'lav Ibid, page 123. 

11 Hard .in v. one-half mile southeast of Hope Mine. Ibid., pg. 121. 

12 s,,ii claj mile sonthenst of Hope mine. Ibid. 

IS— Fire clay from Jones mine, between Benexotte and Tronl Run mine, Lycoming county 

1 1 Hard fire clay, E. Fletcher ,v Brother, two miles weat of Rcnezette. Ibid. r'K- i :lr '- 



p. 11:1. 
Ibid., 



Bed 1 



151 
111 ' Pi 
"J. 



re clay. Newsome. n*iil pg. 



(fniin Brookvtlle, 1*11.) 



Upper clay IBlackllck, Indiana eoonty. 

19— Plastic clay i Indem. Rept. III. pg. 191. _ , „ 

Above table of analyses auoted from Kin Prof Pater So 11. r. s Oeol. Surrey, pp. 

I9r3. 



38 

Analyses of Lower Kittunning Clays. 



sio., 

Al.Oj, 

FeO 

T10 2 

CaO, 

MgO 

Alkalies 

H a O (hygroscopic) 
ll 2 (combined) ■ 



G1.970 

22. 910 

1.81S 

1.975 

.440 

.622 

1.750 

1.480 

7.370 



61.750 

23.000 

1.930 

1.780 

.455 

.353 

2.418 

.680 

7.200 



100.265 I 100.226 



62.S90 
21.490 
1.818 
1.825 
1.380 
.569 
2.525 
1.160 
7.580 



100.237 



62.260 

23.890 

1.408 

1.780 

.470 

.309 

1.977 

J 7.640 

1 



5. 


6. 


66.610 


56.670 


18.390 


26.560 


1.964 


2.106 


2.810 


1.790 


.490 


.260 


.547 


.277 


1.079 


3.790 


7.495 


8.360 


99.385 


99.813 



SIO, 

Ai„b,, 

FeO 

Ti0 2 , f 

C.)l> 

MgO 

Alkalies 

H2O (Hygroscopic), 
II 2 (combined), .. 



7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


57.670 


60.190 


61.980 


68.920 


56.37 


61.86 


27.520 


24.230 


88.880 


22.380 


29.62 


26.02 


1.491 


2.097 


1.393 


.980 


•1.14 


.63 


2.540 


2.345 


1.830 








.880 


.850 


.040 


.190 


.45 


.19 


.122 


.036 


.281 


.172 


.14 


1.26 


.619 


1.669 


2.677 




1.08 


.31 


9.680 


9.015 


7.820 


6.140 


1.92 
8.71 


\ 9.98 

1 


100.025 


100.432 


99.903 


98.783 


99. 18 


100.26 



67.50 
25.70 



Loss. 35 



*As sesquioxide. 

1 to 4. — From Elversou & Sherwood's mines, near New Brighton, Reaver County, being, re- 
si« etivrly, first, second and third grades of clay and the raw clay. Analyses by D. McCreatb. 
Second Geol. Survey Pennsylvania, Kept. MM, p. 262. 

5.— Mendenball & Chamberlin mines, near New Brighton, Beaver County. Analysis by D. Mc- 
Creatb. Ibid. 

6 — Coale's clay, near New Brighton, Beaver County. Analysis by D. McCreatb. Ibid. 

7 — Couch's clay. New Brighton, Beaver County. Analysis by D. McCreath. ibid, 

8 — Severn's clay mines, near Vanport, Beaver County. Analysis by D. McCreath. Ibid. 

9 — S. Barnes & Co.'s clay, Bridgewater, one mile north of Rochester, Beaver County. Analysis 
by D. McCreath. Ibid. 

10 — Brady Run Fire Brick Company, Beaver County. Analysis by F. G. Frick. Mineral Re- 
sources U. S. for 1896; Eighteenth Ann. Rept. II. S. Geol. Survey, pt. 5 (continued), 1897, p. 1155. 

11— Flint clay from Mineral Point. Analysis by N. W. Lord. Geol. Survey Ohio, vol 7, 
1893. p. 221. 

12 — Haydenville, Ohio. Analysis by E. M. Reed. Geol. Survey Ohio, vol. 7, p. 139. 

13 — Average of six analyses made for Vauport Brick Company, Vanport. Analyses by Hunt 
& Clapp, Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory. 

Analyses of Lower Kittunning Clays Near Johnstown, Pa. 1 



SiO. 

Al 2 Oa, 

Fe»0 3 

MgO 

CaO 

Na.O 

K 2 

TiO. 

M116, 

Loss on ignition 

Totals, ..,.. 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


65.90 


66.40 


53.10 


20.30 


19.80 


27.80 


•1.60 


•1.68 


•3.08 


0.66 


».61 


0.60 


0.09 


0.10 


0.22 


0.34 


0.30 


0.48 


2.98 


3.24 


3.58 


1.20 


1.00 


1.20 


6.50 


6.40 


10.20 


99.57 


99.53 


100.26 



(4) 



6S.82 
20.85 
2.79 
0.23 
0.82 



O.06 
5.88 



•Total iron calculated as Fc 2 Oa. 

,U. S. Geol. Survey. Folio 174, p. 13, 1910. 




PLATE III. 

A.— View of Kittanning Clay Manufacturing Company's Works at Kittanning. 




PLATE III. 
B._View of Kittnnning Clay Manufacturing Company's Quarry at Kittanning 



39 

Analyses of Bolivar Five Clay or Uppet Freeport Limestone Clay. 



Sid 

A1»0 3 , ... 

FeO 

TiO. 

Cud 

MgO 

Alkalies. 
Water, .. 
CO, 

Total, 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


59.830 


51.920 


47.250 


40.720 


60.520 


55.330 


55.6S0 


56.780 


65.370 


24.580 


31.640 


34.350 


37.280 


24.970 


27.841 


29.180 


26.890 


24.870 


1.655 


1.134 


0.C93 


2.44S 


1.650 


2.916 


0.837 


0.322 


0.756 


1.170 


1.160 


1.990 


2.280 


1.220 


1.140 


1.490 


* 


* 


0.280 


0.030 


0.580 


O.520 


0.910 


O.5S0 


o.i:;o 


0.369 


0.168 


0.872 


0.443 


0.090 


0.002 


trace. 


0.756 


0.180 


0.987 


0.234 


3.114 


0.402 


0.261 


0.570 


0.21S 


3.916 




3.920 


0.010 


7.830 


13.190 


13.693 


15.002 


9.395 


7.495 


12.490 


8.380 


8.790 




Done. 

1 Oil. 219 


0.455 

99.3'IJ 


0.40S 


0.725 


0.455 

100.421' 








99.331 


99.230 


99. 60S 


iooiass 


100.548 


100.378 



52.230 
31.310 
1.00S 
1.680 
0.130 
0.165 
0.720 
13.190 



*Not determined. 

References for Analyses of Bolivar Fire Clay or Upper Freeport Limestone Clay. 

1 — E. Robinson's day deposit in Indiana i' i.. 2nd GeoL Surv. Kept. HH, p. 90. 

2— Kier Brohters, Salina, Hell Township, Westmoreland County; flnt clay. Idem. Rept. 115, 
p. 114. 

3 Kier Brothers' clay, Salina: top stratum, hard ami brittle. Ibid. 

4 — Kier Brothers' clay, Salina; middle stream, hard and brittle. Ibid. 

5 — Kier Brothers' elay, Salina; bottom stratum. Ibid. 

6— Kier Brohters' clay, Salina; plastic elay. [bid. 

7— It. Hall's, near LaugblinstOWn, 1 miles east from Ligonier, Westmoreland County. Idem. 
Rept. K3, p. 2!9. 

S — Furnace clay on Jamb's Creek, 2 miles aontbeasl of Jacobs Creek Station. Idem. Slept* 

I... p. 112. 

9 Forge clas on Jacobs Creek, 23 miles Soutbei I Jacobs Creek Station, Ibid. 

Potter's clay on Meadow Hun. soutb ->i ! Ohio I'yle Palls, Fayette County. Idem. 
Kept. K3, p. 249. 

analyses quoted from EI. s. Geol, Sure,. Professional Paper No. n, by n. Eies. 

THE GOAL FIELDS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



The geological formations which carry the coals of this State ate 
prevailingly found in that portion of (lie Carboniferous known as the 
Pennsylvanian. These coal bearing rocks contain both the anthra- 
cite and bituminous coals and in popular language are often called 
"The Coal Measures" collectively. 

The Permian Period, above the Pennsylvanian, contains some few 
coal beds locally important, but which in comparison with the coals 
beneath are of minor value. 

These geological formations carrying the coals are as follows: 

Permian Dunkard formation Upper Barren Measures 

[Monongahela formation Upper Productive Measures 

JConeniaugh formation Lower Barren Measures 

Pennsylvanian, J Allegheny formation Lower Productive Measures 

[Pi >ttsville formation 

The Permian carries practically no beds worked at present. Most of 
the coal now mined comes from the Allegheny and Monongahela series. 
The Pottsville cariies the Sharon and Mercer coals, worked only in 
restricted areas in the western part of the State, and, the Upper 
and Lower Lykens coals in the anthracite fields in the east. The 
above table applies more particularly to the bituminous coals rather 
than to the anthracite as attempts to correlate the two series of coals 
are not very satisfactory and the succession of the beds in Hie 
anthracite fields is not clear. However the Allegheny is believed to 
carry the Buck Mountain in the anthracite region and the Mononga- 
lirja the Mammoth, Holmes, etc., in the same field. 



40 

General Statement. Coal has always been the largest single min- 
eral resource of Pennsylvania. In a preliminary statement on the 
coal production of Pennsylvania in 1907 the Division of Mineral Re- 
sources of the U. S. Geological Survey states as follows regarding coal 
in Pennsylvania: 

"Until 1902 Pennsylvania produced each year more than half the 
coal mined in the United States, but since then the State's output 
has fallen below one half, by reason of the great increase in produc- 
tion in other States. 

"Pennsylvania produces more coal than any other single State or 
country in the world except Great Britain, having in 1907 exceeded 
for the first time the production of Germany. Pennsylvania's pro- 
duction of coal exceeds, in fact, the combined production of all for- 
eign countries except Great Britain and Germany." 

The anthracite region is found in an area of somewhat more than 
480 square miles and covers parts of the counties of Carbon, Co- 
lumbia, Dauphin, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Northumberland, Schuylkill, 
Sullivan, Susquehanna, Wayne and Wyoming in which last there is 
no coal mined. The most important producing localities at present 
are in the counties of Carbon, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Northumberland 
and Schuylkill. The coal areas included in these counties have been 
grouped into four or five so-called fields owing to the fact that the 
coal beds are found in a nearly parallel series of elongated basins 
running in a northeast-southwest direction. 

The Lykens or Pottsville Coals. Concerning these coals David 
White makes the following observations (20th Annual Kept. Pt. 2d, 
U. S. Geol. Survey, 1900. "The Stratigraphic Succession of The Potts- 
ville Formation"). "It will be observed that in the section of the 
Pottsville Formation at the gap south of Pottsville a number of 
thin coals are present, several of them having been prospected in the 
vicinity of the typical locality. Coals are to be found in varying 
numbers in every complete section of the formation, though in the 
neighborhood of the type section they have not proved to be of a 
profitable thickness. However, to the north of Pottsville, on Broad 
Mountain, and to the west, throughout the southern field, coals occur 
in greater development, especially locally, and have been extensively 
mined. These coals of the Pottsville formation, which are commer- 
cially known as the "Lykens" coals, and which comprise the "Lower 
Eed Ash" groups of the southern field, appear to be best developed 
or most advantageously exploited in the districts west of Tremont, 
including the Lincoln region and the Wiconisco Basin. 

"In the anthracite fields, as well as in the other coal fields of the Ap- 
palachian trough, the combustible of the Pottsville formation is gen- 
erally the most valuable of the entire series of Carboniferous coals; 
for, while as individual beds the Pottsville coals may be inferior in 



41 

thickness and areal extent, their superior qualities create for them 
the highest demand and encourage their production even under con- 
ditions entirely unfavorable for the exploitation of other and thicker 
beds. To this formation belong the Sharon coal of Northern Ohio 
and Northwestern Pennsylvania; the Pocahontas and New River 
coals of Virginia and West Virginia, celebrated as steam and coking 
coals; the chief coal horizons of Eastern Tennessee; the coals of 
Georgia ; and the principal furnace and steam coals of Alabama. The 
special fitness for domestic use of the rather free-burning Lykens 
coals, which wins for them an advance of from 25 cents to $1.25 per 
ton over the prices of other coals of the anthracite series, has resulted 
in I lie establishment in the Lincoln-Lykens region of several of the 
largest mining plants in the anthracite fields, the capacity of the 
Lincoln and Brookside collieries, which are exclusively occupied with 
the Lykens coals, being 2,900 tons a day of ten hours." 

"Analyses of the West Brookside coals made by Dr. Cresson in 1879 
show" : 



Anthracite Coal Fields, by Field, Local District, and Trade Region. 

Volatile matter, 5.4 

Ash, 8.78 

Sulphur, 0.3b' 

Phosphorus, none 

Fixed Carbon, 85. (KG 

A tabular statement of the several sections of the anthracite fields 
is given below. 



Coal Field or Basin. 


Local District. 


Trade Region. 
















\ Pitteton \ 


Wyoming. 




























Lebigb. 














("East Schuylkill 




Southern middle 




Schuylkil. 







































The above table, except Bernice Basin, from TJ. S. Geol. Survey, Min. Res. Pt. II, 1910. 

Bituminous Coal bearing rocks cover practically the whole of Alle- 
gheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Blair, Butler, Cambria, Greene, 
Indiana, Jefferson, Lawrence, Washington and Westmore- 
land comities; the greater portion of Clarion, Elk, Fayette, Mercer 
and Somerset counties; and parts of Bedford, Blair, Bradford, Cam- 
eron, Center, Clinton, Crawford, (not mined), Forest, (not mined), 



42 

Pulton, Huntingdon, Lycoming, McKean, (not mined), Tioga and 
Venango, (not mined), counties. Chief producers are Allegheny, 
Butler, Cambria, Clearfield, Fayette, Indiana, Jefferson, Somerset, 
Washington and Westmoreland counties. 

Coal of valuable quality is produced from the Broad-Top region, 
in Bedford, Fulton and Huntingdon counties; the beds worked are 
Kelly, Barnet and Fulton. The Pittsburgh bed is present in five 
small, high knobs. The Broad-Top field is under study by the State 
Survey and a special report on it will be issued later. 

From data furnished by the State Geologist it is estimated that the 
production of bituminous coal alone is practically 500,000 tons per 
day, the output of Fayette and Westmoreland counties alone being 
a million tons a week. 

THE BITUMINOUS COAL FIELDS. 

The Allegheny formation carries the following workable coals, 
named from the bottom up: Brookville, Clarion, Lower Kittanning, 
Middle Kittanning, Upper Kittanning, Lower Freeport and Upper 
Freeport. These coals do not have an unbroken continuity over the 
entire extent of the Allegheny formation but are found in restricted 
areas; the Brookville coal is found in the outer edge of the coal bear- 
ing rocks in Jefferson, Clearfield, Cambria, Center and Somerset coun- 
ties particularly. The Clarion coal is found in almost the same area, 
though not always in the same localities. The Lower Kittanning coal 
is exposed in eleven counties in workable thickness, and is one of 
the most persistent of all the Allegheny coals. The Middle and Upper 
Kittanning coals are not found to contain much coal of present work- 
able value; the Upper Kittanning carries some cannel. The Lower 
Freeport is a valuable member of the series and is well developed, 
especially in the Clearfield region. It is found in the counties of 
Center, Clearfield, Jefferson, Indiana and Cambria ; in basins known 
as the Moshannon, Reynoldsville, Punxsutawney and the Barnesboro- 
Patton. It occurs in some places in this area as a rather low grade 
coal. The Upper Freeport coal while absent in some localities is yet 
found in a great part of this same area, often, however, a rather poor 
mining coal. 

The Allegheny series shows a thickness of from 250 to 350 feet. 

The Conemaugh formation extends for a, thickness of about GOO feet 
above the preceeding oue; it carries several, about six, coals which 
while not now worked extensively show considerable promise in Som- 
erset county in the Berlin Basin. 

The Monongahcla formation varies in thickness from 200 feet in 
the western outcrop in Ohio to 380 feet on the Monongahela in Penn- 
sylvania, and to over 400 feet in borings in West Virginia.. It car- 






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43 

ries the great Pittsburgh coal bed which forms the base of the series. 
Above this Pittsburgh coal lie the Redstone, Sewickley, Uniontown, 
and Waynesburg coals ; this last is often said to mark the boundary 
of the Permian though this line may be very much lower. These 
coals are in places of a good workable character, but the over shadow- 
ing importance of the Pittsburgh bed makes them of small value 
under present market conditions. 

The Pittsburgh Goal Bed is all things considered the most famous 
bituminous coal bed in America ; from it are obtained coals for almost 
every conceivable purpose for which a "soft" coal may be used ; gases 
for illumination and furnace use, coke for blast furnace practice, 
high grade steam and power coal. In thickness it runs from 4 to 9 
feet in Pennsylvania with an average of 7 feet ; it runs about 5 feet 
in West Virginia to 22 feet in Maryland. In Pennsylvania it lies 
in almost unbroken area in the counties of Allegheny, Washington, 
Westmoreland, Somerset (in part), Fayette, Indiana (in part), and 
Greene; from this area it extends over into Ohio, West Virginia and 
Maryland. It also occurs in the "Broad -Top" field to the east. 

Quality of the Coal. It is not to be expected that over so large an 
area the quality will remain uniformly good, nor that there will not 
be some areas in which the coal may be lacking. Over practically all 
of the above area the coal is good steam coal, much of it is gas coal; 
it is its availability for furnace coke which is of most importance. 
We quote the following from a report of the Topographic and Geologic 
Survey, Harrisburg, 1908, p. 229: 

"Starting at the east outside of the area here considered, the Pitts- 
burgh coal occupies a limited area in the Salisbury basin in South- 
eastern Somerset county. Here the coal has a fuel ratio of about 
3.5. Analysis shows it to have about 70 per cent, of fixed carbon, 20 
per cent, of volatile combustible matter, 8 per cent, of ash, .75 per 
cent, of sulphur and 1.25 per cent, of moisture. Coming westward a 
small basin of the Pittsburgh coal is found in Eastern Westmoreland 
county in the Ligonier Valley, at Ligonier. This is east of the Chest- 
nut Ridge anticline. Here the coal shows a fuel ratio of a little 
under 3. Analyses will show about: 

Fixed carbon, 62 per cent. 

Volatile hydrocarbons, 23 per cent. 

Ash , 12 per cent . 

Sulphur, less than 2 per cent. 

Moisture (air dried) less than, 1 per cent. 

Crossing the Chestnut Ridge anticline, the fuel ratio drops to 
about 2, the fixed carbon becoming about GO per cent., the volatile 
hydrocarbons about 30, the ash 8, the sulphur 1 or less, the moisture 
(air dried) 1 or over. Here is the first large body of coal preserved 
and here is the great Connellsville-Uniontown coking district. 



44 

Continuing westward or northwestward, the Fayette anticline is 
crossed. This is the last of the sharply folded anticlines, and west 
of it the structure becomes gently and irregularly folded. Corres- 
pondingly, west of that anticline the coals have not lost so large a 
proportion of their volatile constituents. The fuel ratio in the Pitts- 
burgh bed will there usually run under 2, and will average about 1.6. 
Thus most of the analyses will run from 50 to 60 per cent, of fixed 
carbon and from 30 to 37 per cent, of volatile matter. The ash runs 
rather high, usually from 10 to 12 per cent., and the sulphur usually 
between 1 and 2 per cent. Locally the ash runs down to 6 or 7 per 
cent, and the sulphur will run under 1 per cent. 

Crossing the Monongahela river into Greene county, analyses in- 
dicate about the same grade of coal, some of the analyses giving a 
fuel ratio as high as 2 or even a little over, but averaging between 
1.6 and 1.7. The percentage of ash is the same or lower and of 
sulphur about 1. 

In Southeastern Washington county similar conditions hold. Analy- 
ses of the Ellsworth mines show from 53 to 59 per cent, of fixed 
carbon, and from 33.5 to 37 per cent, of volatile matter. The same 
analyses show from 4 to 8 per cent, of ash and from .73 to 1.61 per 
cent, of sulphur. Toward the northwest part of Washington county 
the Pittsburgh coal shows a marked increase in the percentage of 
sulphur, some of the analyses showing as high as 4 per cent, or over. 

Waynesburg Coal. In the Uniontown syncline this coal has an 
average thickness of 3 feet 6 inches. West of this it has a much 
greater thickness but is usually split up with clay partings. Single 
benches range from 2 feet to 4 feet 6 inches at the best. Often by the 
removal of less than 1 foot of clay 5 to 6 feet of coal can be obtained. 
On account of this thickness — often over 10 feet — this coal makes 
a very prominent showing in the roads and elsewhere, but its high 
ash and sulphur and numerous clay partings render it a non-com- 
mercial proposition as long as the Pittsburgh bed remains. A sample 
from Greene county showed: 12.81 per cent, ash; 3.77 per cent, sul- 
phur. 

Waynesburg "A" Coal. While not as thick as the Washington 
coal, the Waynesburg "A" coal is probably the most valuable in the 
Dunkard formation. It shows a thickness of 3 to 4 feet 6 inches 
locally; with in general a thickness of under 2 feet. It will be of 
value only when the larger underlying beds are exhausted. 

Washington Coal. The Washington coal is often thick but is 
usually so broken up with partings as to be nearly or quite worthless. 
It shows its best development in Washington county where it reaches 
a thickness of up to 7 feet, but of this the thickest bench is not more 




Fig. 1.— Map showing area of the Pittsburg coal bed in Pennsylvania. 



45 

than 2 feet 1) Inches. In Western Greene county it has a total thick- 
ness of 2 to 4 feet, but over most of Greene county is only 18 inches 
to 2 feet thick. Recent analysis shows: 

Fixed carbon 40.96 per cout. 

Volatile hydrocarbons, 36.79 per cent. 

Ash 14.03 per cent. 

Sulphur, 3.79 per cent. 

At Ten-mile village is found the Ten-mile coal with a thickness of 
from 1 foot to 3 feet 2 inches." 

COMPOSITION OF COAL. 

Coal in composition is not "carbon'-' but is a mixture of hydro- 
carbons (chemical unions of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) with 
variable amounts of nitrogen, sulphur, moisture and ash; the last 
three being usually spoken of as impurities. These elements are not 
present in a free or uncombined state but are united into a great 
many different chemical compounds which may be separated on dis- 
tilling or limning into a series of hydrocarbons known as smoke, gas, 
tar, coke and so on, the final residue being known as ash. 

The quality of coal depends in part on the amount and kind of the 
impurities present, the nature of the hydrocarbons present and also 
in part on the physical condition of the coal after mining. 

The value of coal is of course dependent primarily on its quality.; 
but the shape and position of the bed, cost of mining, nearness to a 
means of transportation, and proximity of other and more valuable 
coals all enter into the matter of value. 

The Orii/in of Coal. It is generally agreed among geologists that 
coal has been formed in some manner from vegetable matter which 
has undergone very profound modification to make the various kinds 
of coal recognized; on the basis of this supposition a series of nal 
ural gradations has been distinguished from plant fibre and peat up 
to anthracite coal. These gradations are due to the variations in the 
character of the hydrocarbons present in these substances, and to 
the increase in percentage of carbon over that of hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, etc.; it is supposed that graphite, which is pure carbon, is 
the result of alteration of vegetable or organic matter. This is shown 
in the table following: 



1 






<D 


a 
o 

£1 


© 






O 


w 



Plant fibre, .. 
Peat 

T.iL'Tiili', 

Sub-P.i tuminous , 
Bituminous, 

Ketni-AnthnH'itt', 
Anthracite, 



50.86 


5.8 


59.47 


6.52 


52.66 


5.22 


58.41 


5.0« 


82.70 


4.77 


ss.n 


4,68 


90.46 


2.43 



42.57 
Cl.r.l 
27. ir, 
28.99 
9.3!) 
4.65 
2.45 



.77 




2.51 




.71 


S.M 


1.01) 


.63 


1.62 


.45 


1.02 


.75 



12.24 
4.79 
1.07 
5.86 
4.67 






46 

As will be seen by the analyses there is a marked increase in carbon 
percentage as we pass from vegetable matter and peat up to anthra- 
cite. This is accompanied by a very noticeable decrease in the volatil- 
ity of the coals so that anthracite coal is much less volatile than 
bituminous; that is it ignites less easily and burns with the separa- 
tion of less smoke, and little or no coke residue. Coal burns by the 
oxidation of the carbon, the hydrogen not already united with oxygen, 
and to a much less important degree the oxidation of sulphur and 
other elements not already united with oxygen. "Coal ash" is the 
unburnable residue left after the complete oxidation of all the ele- 
ments present in the coal. Various patent and secret nostrums have 
been set forth from time to time warranted to burn completely the 
coal ash; these are all based on a fallacious reasoning, inasmuch as 
coal ash is the mineral (stony) portion of coal, such as iron, lime, 
alumina, magnesia and so forth, which take up oxygen in burning and 
fuse together to form cinders or clinkers or else simply remain as 
ashes. It is no more possible to burn this material than it is to burn 
slag from a blast furnace. 

The heating power of coal is then the result of oxidation or burn 
ing of these various elements present to their complete combustion 
and is usually called the "calorific value." This calorific value is 
expressed in two ways; as "calorics" which means the amount of 
heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one 
degree centigrade; or it is expressed in British Thermal Units, B. t. u., 
being the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one 
pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. Calorific values may be 
turned to British Thermal ('nits by multiplying the Calorific value 
by 1.8. Inasmuch as the chemical elements in coal are not always 
present in the same manner, or in the same amount, it is not possible 
to predict accurately what the Calorific value of a coal will be simply 
from the composition, that is percentages of carbon, hydrogen and 
so forth. 

Coal Composition. 

The chemical analyses of coal are frequently expressed in two 
ways as the proximate analysis and as the ultimate analysis. The 
first is based upon the fact that coals, especially the bituminous ones, 
are seen in burning to separate rather definitely into two sorts of 
hydro-carbon compounds, spoken of as volatile hydrocarbon (v. h. c.) 
and fixed carbon, (f. c), together with moisture (H 2 0), ash and 
sulphur. 

The ultimate analysis is the expression of the total quantities of 
each actual element present as carbon, hydrogen, etc. From the 
analyses given above as elemental analyses of coal it will be seen 
that there is a marked increase in carbon over hydrogen as we ap- 



47 

proach anthracite coal; in general the higher the carbon content the 
more nearly the coal approaches anthracite, and finally graphite, and 
thus becomes of more difficult ignition. These chemical analyses are 
used as a basis for. 

Classification of Coals. 

"One of the most extensively discussed questions connected with 
the Pennsylvania anthracite and bituminous regions, and one about 
which the most unsatisfactory conclusions have been arrived at, has 
been the classification of the coals. The original division of our 
Pennsylvania coals into anthracite, semi-anthracite, semi bitumin- 
ous, and bituminous, was one founded largely upon their geographi- 
cal distribution, although the supposed basis was the chemical com- 
position of the coals. These names as they have been indelibly fixed 
upon coals produced from special sections or individual mines, will 
always, to some extent, be made use of by the coal trade; they have, 
however, no scientific value. An interesting discussion of this sub- 
ject by Dr. Persifor Frazer, was published in Report MM of the Scc- 
oiid Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. As a result, the following 
classification is suggested: 

c 

Classes of coats Ratio ; — :1. 

VolH.C. 

Hard-dry anthracite from 0!):l to 12:1 

Semi-anthracite from 12:1 to 8:1 

Semi-bituminous, from 8:1 to 5:1 

Bituminous from 5:1 to 0:1 

"In arranging the coals in this classification, and many others 
proposed, the accidental impurities, such as sulphur and earthy mat- 
ter, are disregarded in the analysis, and fhe fuel constituents are 
alone considered. While this classification is i)i*obably the best which 
lias been suggested for our Pennsylvania coals, and may be used 
provisionally as a scientific basis, the coals as at present graded by 
the coal trade could not be arranged under this or any other chemical 
classification ; and I do not believe thai we have sufficient data now at 
command to suggest a final arrangement which might be considered 
a scientific rating of the coals, and which would be accepted by the 
coal miners, venders, and consumers." 

The above is quoted from Chas. A. Ashburner, Annual Report, Sec- 
ond Geological Survey of Penna., Harrisburg, 1886, page 301. Al- 
though written over 25 years ago, it is still true today that no satis- 
factory means of coal classification on the basis of chemical analysis 
has yet been devised. It has been suggested to use the total carbon 
content as a basis for such classification but there are obvious objec- 
tions to this. Most coal analyses are now made both on an ultimate 
and a rational basis and on carefully selected samples. The details 
of this subject can not be considered here. From the above report 



48 

of Ashburner's the following table of coal analyses is taken to show 
the average composition of Pennsylvania anthracites, (op. cit. page 
313). 

The table is not of course complete nor in accord with more mod- 
ern analytic practice. The whole matter of the composition of Penn- 
sylvania coals is in an incomplete and unsatisfactory state and needs 
further detailed study. It is a matter of great importance that this 
study be taken up as soon as possible while there is opportunity of 
access to the coals through the numerous mines now open and before 
it is too late to be of practical value for the coals yet remaining un- 
mined. 






49 



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50 

"An attempt has been made on Plate V to indicate the distribu- 
tion of the various grades of coal in Pennsylvania on the basis of 
the fuel ratios. Examination of the map shows the anthracite coal 
of Lackawanna, Luzerne, Carbon and Schuylkill counties to have 
a fuel ratio averaging over 20, the analyses showing from 80 to 88 
per cent, of fixed carbon and from 3 to 4.5 per cent, of volatile mat- 
ter. The western ends of those fields tend to grade into the semi- 
anthracite class. In Eastern Sullivan is the Bernice field of "soft 
anthracite" or semi-anthracite, with a fuel ratio of 6 to 10. This 
field contains coals that run over 80 per cent, of fixed carbon and 
under 9 per cent, of volatile matter, 83.4 of fixed carbon and 8.10 of 
volatile being a typical example. On the other hand most of the 
analyses on hand from the Bernice Basin show a fuel ratio of be- 
tween 3.5 and 6. Then comes the Broad-Top field of Bedford and 
Huntingdon counties, in which the eastern edge has a higher fuel 
ratio than the western, and a strip along the Allegheny Front, where 
the rocks, if not more folded than farther west, have probably been 
subjected to much greater stress. The rocks west of the Allegheny 
Front seem to have served as a buttress against which the rocks to 
the east were folded, and it is natural to suppose that the face of 
this buttress should suffer more severely than the rocks farther back. 
The folding is not always more noticeably pronounced close behind 
the front, but in Clearfield county at least mining has brought out 
the fact of extensive thrust faulting, and all of the coals near the 
face tend to be minutely dissected with fracture planes, making the 
coals tender and soft, so that there is found from Bradford county 
a strip running through Lycoming, Southeast Clearfield, Eastern 
Cambria and Somerset- counties, where the coals have a fuel ratio 
of from 4 to 5. At South Fork in Cambria county the fuel ratio runs 
close to or quite to 6. West of that through the same counties, and 
extending over into Tioga and Clinton, the coals show fuel ratios 
of from 3 to 4. Coming between 2 and 3 will be found the coals of 
the Allegheny or Lower Coal Measures in Blair, Clinton, Indiana, 
Westmoreland and Fayette counties, and part of the Pittsburgh coal, 
though only that portion in the basin immediately west of Chestnut 
Ridge, where it has been involved in relatively close folding. It is 
noticeable, for example, in Indiana county that while the Pittsburgh 
coal in that county will run about 1.6, the Allegheny coals will run 
from 2.5 to 3. The Connellsville coking coal of Westmoreland and 
Fayette counties will as a rule run about 2, sometimes reaching as 
high as 2.5. As a rule, however, the Pittsburgh coal will run between 
1.5 and 2 1 . 

Analyses of the Pittsburgh, coal from the Connellsville district. The 
coal from this territory has long been famed as the source of what 
is probably the highest grade of coke made in America and it is not 

'Top. ana Gcol. Survey Commission, 1906-OS, p. 223. 




Map of the Elders Ridge coal field, Pennsylvania. 
PLATE VI . 



51 



necessary here to more than refer to it briefly by giving a few 

analyses. 

Analysis of Pittsburg (Connellsville) coal from Hroadford. 1 

Water, 1 .260 

Volatile matter, 30.107 

Fixed carbon, 59.616 

Sulphur, 00.784 

Ash, 8.233 

Total, 100.000 

Average analysis from a number "f determinations made in 1893. II. C. Frick 

Coke Company. 3 

Water 1 . 130 

Volatile mailer 29.812 

Fixed carbon 60.420 

Sulphur, 0.689 

Ash, 7.949 

Total, 100.000 

Average of Connellsville coke by analysis. 

Water 0.070 

Volatile matter, 0.880 

Fixed carbon, 89.509 

Sulphur, 0.711 

Ash, 8.830 

Total, 100.000 

Analysis by H. 0. Frirk Coke Company. 

Average composition of Connellsville Coke (McCreath). 

Water, 00.300 

Volatile matter 00.460 

Fixed Carbon 89.576 

Sulphur 00.821 

Ash 9.113 

Phosphorous, 00.014 

Total, 100.284 

Both the above tables are copied from T". S. Geol. Survey, Folio 94, page 17. 

The accompanying map and analyses of the Pittsburgh coal from 
the Kldeis Ridge district are taken from Bulletin 225 U. S. Geological 
Survey, Washington, 1903. The analyses of this coal and the coke 
made from it show considerable variation in character from those 
of (lie Fayette (Connellsville) district. 

Analyses of Pittsburg Coal from Riders Ridge Field. 



Locality. 































1 

E 










.2 




o 




o 






m 








= 


























« 


": 






3 

3 


M 


fc 


> 


% 


< 


m 


h 


U 



Authority. 



Avi'iniU'iv 
Arnold 1, 
Arnold 2, 
Isi'lin. 
Aslibunu'li, 
Ku'iui:, 
Evniis 1, 
Evans 'J, 

Hblsten, 



% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


56.432 


35.040 


0.720 


6.810 


0.988 


1.61 


64.23 




33.99 


.51 


10.33 


.98 


1.67 


66.48 


.Mi. 47 


30.02 


.03 


11.83 


1.02 


1.88 


69.32 




31.48 


1.76 


10.42 


1.25 


1.79 


68.01 


58.639 


37.555 


1.110 


6.260 


1.436 


1.43 


61.335 


60.230 


36.9IJO 


.800 


9.030 


3.040 


1.36 


62.30 


50.850 


86.940 


1.040 


9.705 


1.465 


1.38 


62.02 


53.788 


31.995 


1.460 


11.760 


.997 


1.68 


66.545 


56.25 


33.41 


1.61 


8.73 


1.S7 


1.68 


56.85 



L. W. Hicks. 
O. B. Dudley. 

wutii .v Stafford. 

George Steiger. 

A. S. McCreatb. 

A. S. McCreath. 

A. s. McCreath. 

A. S. McCreath. 

E. C. Sullivan. 



'Analysis by A. R. McCreatb. 

! U. S. Geol. Survey, Folio 94, page 13, 1903, 



52 





Comparative Analyses of Coke. 








Elders Ridge. 


< '<>llllt']ls\ ill.'. 




90.532 


% 

sii.r.oo 




.SSO 






.070 




7.111 
2.067 


8.830 




.711 










100.000 


100.000 



Two analyses of coke made from Pittsburgh coal are given above. 
The first was made by A. S. McCreath from eoke made in the labora- 
tory of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania by coking coal 
in a platinum crucible. The coal was from the Saltsburg Coal Com- 
pany mine in the southern block of the Elders Eidge field. The sec- 
ond is the average of a number of analyses of typical Connellsville 
coke made by the H. C. Frick Coke Company. The amount of sulphur 
in the Elders Ridge coke is too high for a first-class product, but this 
might be remedied by washing the coal to get rid of part of the sul- 
phur. 

LOWER FREEPORT COAL. 

The following analyses taken from Bulletin 225, TT. S. Geological 
Survey, page 302, show the character of the Lower Freeport coal from 
the Barnesboro district: 

"Quality of the Goal. — The Lower Preeport coal carries a large 
amount of sulphur in the form of "knife blades" and iron nodules in 
many parts of the region. Impurities seem to decrease west of 
Barnesboro and the coal becomes suitable for coking. The coal of the 
Greenwich mines near Garmans Mills is shipped to the Maryland 
Steel Company at Sparrows Point, Md., where it is coked in by- 
product ovens with excellent results. Three reported analyses of the 
coal from these mines show the following composition: 

Analyses of the Lower Freeport Coal from near Garman's Mills, Pn. 



Moisture 

Volatile combustible matter. 

Fixed carbon 

Ash 

Sulphur 

Phosphorous, 



I. 


II. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


(a) 


(a) 


25.34 


2(1.48 


P5. 81 


65. 84 


8.85 


7.68 


.80 


.71 


.008 


.005 



Per Cent. 
(a) 



67.88 

5.26 

.64 



ffNot determined. 



Following is a comparison of the average of 10 determinations of 
coal from the Greenwich mines and an average analysis of the Con- 
nellsville coal furnished by the H. C. Frick Coke Company. 



53 



Comparative Analysis of ConnellsvLUe aud Lower Freeport Coals. 











**M 






r: O 


*l 


1 


"m 


t £ 




3 1 * 


&* 




> 






ad 
S 


! 5 



Moisture 

Volatil* nilmstible matter. 

Fixed carbon 

As 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus* 



Per Cent. 

1.130 

89.812 

60.420 
7.949 
.689 
(a) 



Per Cent. 
(») 

25.099 

6C.3II0 

7.787 
.840 

.(KM 



100.000 



cNot determined. 



No moisture determinations were made of the Lower Freeport coal 
in these analyses, but a number of others show the moisture to be 
much less than 1 per cent." 



COALS OF Till: ALLEGHENY FORMATION. 

The following table of analyses of coals from the Kittanning and 
Rural Valley quadrangles is taken from U. S. Geol. Survey, Bulletin 
279; it shows the comparative mei its of some of the Allegheny coals 
from various localities. 



54 



ANALYSES OP COALS IN THE KITTANNING AND 



Name of Seam. 



Clarion 

Lower Kittanning, 
do 



.do 
.do 



.do 
.do 



Upper Kittanning 



.do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Lower Freeport, 

do 

do 

Upper Freeport, 
do 



• do 
.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

• do 
.do 



Locality. 



West Winfleld, 
Mahoning;, 



Rogers farm, west of 
Buffalo Mills, near 
county line. 

Kittanning 



Mouth of Cowanshan- 
nock Creek. 

Craigsville 

1 mile east of Green- 
dale. 

Bostonia, south of 
New Bethlehem. 



.do 



do 

Cathcart Run 

Little Mudlick Creek, 

do 

do 

Pine Furnace 

Yatesboro 

Cowansville, 

Mahoning Furnace, . 
Bostonia 



A. G. Morris, 

Mahoning Coal Co., 



Kittanning Clay Mfg. 
Co. 



Mr. Bowser, 
Rhea farm, 



Redbank Mining Co., 
cannel bench, analy- 
sis No. 1. 

Redbank Mining Co., 
cannel bench, analy- 
sis No. 2. 

Redbank Mining Co. , . 
bituminous bench. 

Brooks bank 



Analyst. 



Near Freeport, off 
quadrangle. 

U miles southwest of 
North Buffalo post- 
office. 

1 mile east of Ewing, 

Stewardson Fur nace 
(Dee). 

Bostonia 



Mahoning Furnace, 

Mosgrove, 

Yatesboro 

Blanco 



Thompson bank, upper 
bench, bituminous. 

Thompson bank, mid- 
dle bench, cannel. 

Thompson bank, lower 
bench, bituminous. 



B. Schreckeugost, 



C o w a nsville Mining 
Co. 



Redbank Coal Co 



Brunei 1 bank, 



Galbreath bank, 



Redbank Coal Co., 
Colwells mine, ... 



Pittsburgh Plate Glass 

Co. 
Patterson mine 



Beers hank, 



E. C. Sullivan, U. S. 

G. S.a 
A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 232). 
A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 287). 

Geo. Steiger, U. S. G. 

S.a 
do. a 



do. a 

A. S. McCreath, 



A. S. McCreath (H., 
p. 240). 



A. S. McCreath (Ha, 

p. ISO). 
do 



.do 
.do 



A. S. McCreath (HB, 

p. 123). 
A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 94). 
W. F. Schaller. U. S. 

G. S.a 
A. S. McCreath (Ho, 

p. 101). 
A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 192). 
A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 262). 
Goo. Steiger, U. S. G. 

S.a 



.do 



A. S. McCreath (Ha, 

p. 171). 
A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 193). 
A. S. McCreath (Ho, 

p. 160). 



A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 91). 
A. S. McCreath (H5, 

p. 92). 



(/Collected by J. S. Burrows. 

Note. — II and 115 in "Analyst" column refer to reports of the Second Geological Surrey of 
Pennsylvania. 



55 



RURAL VALLEY QUADRANC4LES. 





H 














~ 




o 














a 


a 




















0) 








| 




BB 


s 


**3 


CJ 




b 


O 




<M 


& 




cT£ 


a 






a 


_j 








oE 


■3 


to 


a 


o 


© 


O 


O 


&4 


> 


3 


«l 


GQ 


■ ~ 


EH 


O 


O 



50.83 
49.688 

is. 717 



E2.032 



46.194 

■13. sir. 



49.78 

1. 

r.3.>;oi 

54.996 
51.18 

53. 5013 
57.17!) 



36.19 
42.550 

42.720 

35.09 

32.93 

37.00 
38.205 

30.4110 

31.0S0 

3H.120 

32. COS 

37. KM 

37.830 

34.105 

34. 185 

31.270 

31.73 

37.110 

35.910 

39, 35 
29.00 

31.65 

35.520 

35.940 
34.810 
34.22 
36.995 
37.S60 



2.20 
1.180 
1.100 

1.61 

3.19 

1.89 
.900 

.510 
.730 

1.650 

.640 
1.120 
1.610 

.810 
1.820 

.910 
2.97 
1.070 
1.690 
1.430 
2.17 

2.72 
1.170 

1.840 

1.450 

2.30 

1.020 

1.140 



10.78 

5.06E 

9.71 

14.69 

8.08 
5.140 

22.230 

17.320 

3.880 
13.345 
0.705 
6.750 
9.055 
4.705 
9.285 
11.96 
8.330 
5.040 
5.710 
17.46 

15.85 
6.030 

6.820 

7.690 

10.70 
5.770 
2.790 



63.35 




1.999 


.0061 


2.313 




64.62 




67.32 




64.41 
3.663 




.576 




.435 




2.634 




1.044 




1.388 




.678 




.5SS 




.9S0 




2.211 




63.51 




3.225 


.0092 


3.3S0 




2.819 




62.58 




64.06 

.835 


.0084 


1.739 





1.054 
1.65 
2.461 
1.031 



100. 

100.0061 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 
100. 00 

100.00 

100.980 

100.00 
100. 00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.90 
100. 00 
100.0992 
100. oo 
100.00 
100. oo 

100. 00 
100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

99.S20 

100.00 



Slightly 

red. 
Plnkisb 

gray. 
Keddisb 

gray. 



Reddish 

gray. 



Brown, 

Gray, . . . 

Reddish 

gray. 

Gray, ... 

do 

Cream, 

Gray, ... 



Pinkish 

gray. 

Gray, ... 

Cream, 



Yellow- 
ish gray. 
Gray, ... 



Cream, 

do 



56.270 
56.120 



59.23 

G6.695 

60.850 

00.560 

64.725 

63.995 



G1.S20 
62.370 
58.735 



63.010 
62.220 
03.740 



61.9S1 
61.000 



Swollen, 
porous. 



. .Poor, 

do 



Good, .. 



1:1.44 
1:1.17 
1:1.14 

1:1.52 

1:1.49 

1:1.42 
1:1.36 



1:1.54 

1:J.34 

1:1.00 

1:1.39 

1:1.40 

1:1.58 

1:1.70 

1:1.56" 

1:1.62 

1:1.35 

1:1.50 

1:1.26 

1:1.77 

1:1.57 
1:1.56 

1:1.49 

1:1.58 

1:1.48 

1:1.45 
1:1.61 



6Sulphur separately determined. 



56 

PENNSYLVANIA COKE DISTRICTS. 

No. 1. Connellsville : The County of Fayette and the southern 
half of Westmoreland. 

Pittsburgh: Vicinity of Pittsburgh, the coke being made from 
coal brought down the Monogahela river. 

No. 2. Reynolds and Walton: All the ovens on the Rochester 
and Pittsburgh Railroad, those on the Low Grade Division of the 
Allegheny Valley Railway, and the mines on the New York, Lake Erie 
and Western Railway. 

No. 3. Upper Connellsville: The region around and north A 
Latrobe, the coal being somewhat different from the deposit farther 
south. 

No. 4. Allegheny Mountain: Ovens along the line of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad from Galitzin to beyond Altoona, and those in Som- 
erset County. This includes also the coke ovens near Johnstown. 

No. 5. Clearfield — Center: The two counties of Clearfield and 
Centre. 

No. 6. Greensburg: Near the town of Greensburg, in the central 
part of Westmoreland County. 

No. 7. Broad Top: The Broad Top coal field in Bedford and 
Huntingdon Counties. 

No. 8. Lower Connellsville: A new district, first appearing in 
the U. S. reports in 1900. Known also as the Klondike district, a 
southwest extension of the Connellsville Basin. 

No. 9. Irwin: The neighborhood of the town of Irwin on the 
Youghiogheny river, in the western part of Westmoreland county. 

The Beaver, Allegheny Valley and Blossburg districts, formerly 
recognized, are no longer of importance.* 

COPPER. 

Copper in quite a variety of mineral forms has been found in 
the State, all of them in the eastern portion. Some of these locali- 
ties are of no importance except of interest to the professional min- 
eralogist; other localities have been much exploited and in fact at 
times have gone through the phases of "booms," and in the South 
Mountain, in the Adams-Franklin district, there are regularly or- 
ganized companies with a number of mines and smelters. 

The mineral forms in which copper occurs are numerous. Those 
which have been found to be the chief producing types are the sul- 
phide ores, the carbonate ores to a lesser degree, and at Lake Super- 
ior the "native copper" or free metal. 

Representatives of all these are in this State. 

•'•Iron and Steel," H. H. Campbell, Nhw York, 1303. 



57 

Ores of Copper. 

Ghalcopyrite Cu FeS 2 . Copper 34.5 per cent., copper-iron sulphide. 
Brass-yellow color. 

Ghalcotite Cu 2 S. Copper 79.8 per cent.; copper sulphide. Black 
color. 

Bornite. Cu 3 FeS 3 . Copper 55.5 per cent.; copper-iron sulphide. 

Peacock color. 

Cuprite. Cu 2 0. Copper 88.8 per cent.; copper oxide. Red in 
color. 

Malachite, Azurite. Copper carbonates with water. Copper 61.62 
per cent. Malachite is green; Azurite is blue in color. 

While there are in other states, copper camps producing valuable 
yields from these two minerals, (the carbonates) the ores which are 
regarded as the chief and most likely to be of permanent value are 
I he sulphide ones. Metallic copper is a valuable deposit at Lake Super- 
ior, but in this State, like cuprite, is local only and not of much 
abundance. 

The chief copper minerals are Chalcopyrite and Chalcocite. Cop- 
per has been found in the State at the Ecton Mine, the Jones Mine in 
Montgomery and Berks counties; at French creek, Chester county; 
at 1 lie Cornwall mines, Lebanon county; the Gap mine, Lancaster 
county (see under nickel) ; at all of these places as Ghalcopyrite. 

This mineral has also been found in small or minute quantities in 
the gneiss rocks from Frankford and the Wissahickon and from the 
Lafayette soapstone quarries. The Ghalcopyrite from the old Wheat- 
ley mine gave copper 32.85 per cent. In the Triassic "red rocks" of 
Montgomery, Bucks, York, Lancaster and other counties small quan- 
tities have been reported at various other places. 

Bornite is much less common and is found at few places in this 
State. These are in several places in York and -Adams counties, 
as at Dillsburg and Gettysburg in the Trias; at Lafayette, McKin- 
ney's quarry, Germantown, and elsewhere in minute amount. It has 
been found in the Adams-Franklin district. In Lycoming, Sullivan 
and other counties it is reported, (Genth Rep. B.) as being in the 
Devonian rocks. 

Cuprite and Native Copper have been found and are still found in 
the iron ore at Cornwall. Some very fine specimens of each have been 
taken from these mines, these are likely to be found as ruby red or 
brick-dust red forms along with the other copper minerals. Native 
Copper is "copper red" in color. Malachite and Azurite are common 
wherever other copper minerals occur, and are found often as stains 
on rocks. Very fine specimens of the two carbonates, Malachite 
(green) and Azurite (blue), have been found in the past at the old 
Jon os mine, Montgomery county, and at Cornwall. These specimens 
have in many cases gone to enrich the numerous collections, public 
and private, in Philadelphia and vicinity. 



58 

The South Mountain copper occurrences in Adams and Franklin 
counties have excited great interest in iliis State and are al 
present practically the only places where copper is being systemati- 
cally exploited in the State. The mines are situated near Charniian 
and Fairfield in Pennsylvania and the same copper rocks outcrop in 
Carrol county, Maryland. Geologically the copper hearing rocks are 
found in what is known as the "Pre Cambrian." These are forma- 
tions of a very ancient origin and are very like the formations at Lake 
Superior. Tn Pennsylvania they are rocks of an eruptive (volcanic] 
character, both acid (siliceous) and basic. These volcanic rocks 
have been in the lapse of great lime very much changed and are not 
like ordinary lava. They are generally known as "porphyry" or 
rhyolite for the acid ones, and "green stone" lor the basic ones. The 
copper occurs chiefly with the basic or green stone rocks and generally 
at or near the contact of these with the acid ones. The ore is usually 
small grains or lumps, wires, flat scaly pieces or rough pieces of na- 
tive copper; red oxide (cuprite) also is found, as are malachite and 
azurite. These last two often occur as stains on or in the rocks. 

Epidofc a pistachio green or olive green lime silicate mineral. The 
green color in this mineral is due to iron not copper. 

The absence of large amounts of sulphide ore in this region is note- 
worthy. There are some I en mines which have been worked in the 
region; the one most active at present is about a mile north of Char- 
mian. Several bore holes reported to be 300-400 feet deep have been 
made. Anaylses of samples of ores are not available, nor of the 
products from the smelters. So far as can be seen by the practical 
results the district has not yet established itself as a copper producer. 
The field has been prospected and opened for almost seventy-five years, 
though not always with modern methods, and I lie persistent absence 
of large veins of sulphides is not an encouraging sign, though perhaps 
further borings will show their presence. It is very much to be 
desired thai the energy and money already spent be followed by the 
discovery of permanently valuable deposits of copper. At present it 
does not. seem possible to pass a final opinion as to the future possi 
bilities. 

A word or two of caution may perhaps be added. There are many 
places where the green and blue and red stains of. copper minerals 
seem to show large amounts of copper present. These are very decep- 
tive as a small quantity of stain may cover much rock and represent 
so small a percentage of metal as to be valueless. 

Secondly no one should invest money in any gold, silver, copper or 
lead mine in this Slate unless he can afford to lose it. While there 
are always possibilities of experts being mistaken it must lie said 
that the present indications are against the discovery of really large 
deposits of these metals in Pennsylvania. 









59 
CORUNDUM. 

This mineral, known also as ruby, sapphire, and in an impure form 
as emery, consists when in chemically pure state of oxide of alumi- 
num, A1 2 3 ; percentage of aluminum, 52.9. it often has iron, chrom- 
ium and other impurities present. Corundum is found chiefly in the 
serpentine belt that comes diagonally across Maryland through the 
counties of Lancaster, York, Chester, Delaware. Montgomery, Lehigh, 
Northampton, Berks, and Bucks in Pennsylvania. Corundum is 
found associated with it in many places, especially in Chester and 
Delaware counties, and, a few years ago, was mined to some extent in 
Chester county. Considerable prospecting has been done in Pennsyl- 
vania, but the mines are now abandoned. 

Corundum lias probably been found more abundantly near Union- 
ville, in Newlin Township, Chester county than elsewhere. It is 
found here in a mass of serpentine rock, with an average width of 
about 800 feel and a length of 1 mile. A number of tons of corundum 
have been obtained from this mine, but during the last ten j'ears little 
or no work has been carried on. The gem varieties, ruby and sapphire, 
are not found in good quality in this State though interesting speci- 
mens are sometimes discovered. The chief uses of corundum are 
for abrasive purposes, as wheels, powders, "flours," stones, etc. It 
it also used sometimes as an ore of aluminum but when in good pure 
condition commands a higher market price as an abrasive as it is next 
to the diamond the hardest known natural substance. "Carbor- 
undum" a carbide of silicon, a manufactured product, is often popu- 
larly confused with corundum. "Alumdum" is a somewhat similar 
substance, and is stated by its manufacturers to be an artificial 
corundum made in the electric furnace. 

According to Mr. W. W. Jeffries, as quoted by Mr. Joseph Willcox, 
Messrs. John and Joel Bailey claim to have discovered corundum in 
the serpentine region of Chester county, Pa., about 1822 to 1825. Dr. 
Thomas Seal collected specimens at Unionville about 1832; Mr. 
Jeffries himself saw large lumps in the fields there in 1837 or 1838;* 
and a ton of surface fragments and bowlders was collected about 1839 
and shipped to Liverpool. But the search for" the source of this ma- 
terial was unsuccessful till 1S75, when a large lenticular mass was 
found in place. This consisted chiefly of corundum and margarite 
and carried some fine specimens of diaspore.f 

The chief localities arc as follows: 

Unionville. — In a large mass of serpentine rocks, one mile north- 
east of this village, corundum has been found. It occurs here also in 
Albite feldspar. 

Villagegreen. — Large crystals of corundum of a brownish color 
are found near this village, in Aston township, Delaware county. 

•Second Geol. Survey Pennsylvania, 0. 1883, pp. 84«-861. 
tSecond Geol, Survey IVmisylvimfn, B. 1875, pp. 31-33. 



60 

West Chester. — Corundum has been found in a serpentine of this 
township. 

Blackhorse. — Slender grayish crystals of corundum have been found 
at this place, which is near Media, Delaware county. This has been 
found inclosed by feldspar. The crystals may be found loose in the 
soil. 

Fremont. — Near this place, in West Nottingham township, Chester 
county, corundum crystals have been found, surrounded by feldspar. 

Mineral Hill. — Corundum crystals have been found at this place, 
which is near Media, in Middletown township, Delaware county. 
They were surrounded by feldspar similar to that at Blackhorse. 

Newlin. — See under Unionville. 

Shimerville. — At this place, in Lehigh county, corundum crystals 
up to 8 inches in length and 14 inches in diameter have been found 
loose in the soil. The Shimerville locality was originally discovered 
by Dr. Edgar F. Smith, of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia. Several tons of corundum crystals were taken out from this 
locality. The locality is reported as being reopened. The corundum 
is in a feldspar. 

In the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia ; the University of Pennsylvania, which has now the well known 
Cardeza collection, and in the Jeffries collection now at the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh, are many specimens of Pennsylvania corundums. 

Corundum as stated above occurs in practically the same general 
Held as the serpentine area and, in many places, near the localities 
given above, crystals may be still found. At present it is not consid- 
erably exploited in this State. 

The crystals of corundum are six sided and generally flat at ends. 
When the crystals are small they aie usually well developed, with 
smooth faces and sharp edges; the larger crystals are rough, striated, 
often rounded, and taper slightly toward the end, like a barrel, so 
that they are sometimes called "barrel corundum." At Shimerville 
were found barrel crystals more than 6 inches in diameter. They are 
most often in the Pennsylvania localities of a gray color. In some 
places the sapphire (blue) or ruby (red) colors are found but not 
in gem quality, except in small pieces. 



CYANITE. 

This rather pretty mineral, sometime used for gem purposes, has 
been found in the State in fine specimens. It is a silicate of alumina 
with a variety of colors, from greys running up to dee]) blue. Very 
beautiful specimens, in large flat pieces and in radiating masses, 
have been found in the decomposed mica rocks near Darby, at Leiper- 



61 

ville, Black Horse and other places in Delaware county ; near Phila- 
delphia on the Wissahickon; at the Poorhouse quarry and other 
places in Chester county, and in Bucks county near Bustleton. 
Aside from gem purposes cyanite has no commercial importance. 

DOLOMITE. (See Limestone, also Maguesian Minerals). 



EPIDOTE. 

This is a pistachio or olive-green clored mineral found in associa- 
tion with some of the rocks of the Triassic formation and also not 
infrequently in the rocks of the South Mountain ; it occurs along with 
native copper in Adams county and is popularly believed to be a cer- 
tain indicator of the presence of this metal. This is however an error 
as epidote has no copper in its composition, and it occurs in many 
places far away from any copper minerals. 

It is a silicate of alumina with lime iron and, rarely, manganese; 
piedmontite is a rather brownish manganese variety found in the 
eruptive rocks of Adams county. 

Thulite is a rose-pink colored variety of zoisitc, a mineral very 
similar to epidote; thulite occurs in beautiful specimens along with 
feldspar at Leiperville and in other similar rocks near Chester. Epi- 
dote and zoisite are often found along with allanite, magnetite, zircon, 
and copper; in general with minerals resulting from the alteration of 
rock or mineral masses. Epidote is found in many localities in Penn- 
sylvania. In the regions of the Trias it is sometimes found in rounded 
lumps or nodules, often brown on the surface but green on the inside. 



FELDSPAE "SPAR." 

The important group of minerals known as Feldspar includes 
natural silicate compounds of alumina with potash, soda, lime, "or 
rarely barium. The feldspars are commonly divided into two groups 
known as Orthoclase and Plagioclase. These are named primarily 
according to the shape of cleavage or breakage pieces. The Ortho- 
clase is always in squarish or oblong pieces having angles of 90°, or 
square. The ends are usually rough. The Plagioclase feldspars do 
not have this square cleavage so completely developed as the Ortho- 
clase and have often fine parallel lines, like rulings, upon the cleavage 
faces; they are soda, lime, silicates. 

The names and compositions of the feldspars are given in the 
following table: 



62 



Names and Composition of Feldspars. 



Name. 



Orthoclaae, 

Albite 

oiigoi ■ 

AliilrMlc. 

Labrador! te, 

An^rliiiti', 



SiO = . 


A1 : 0,. 


CaO. 


K s O. 


64.7 
6S.7 
65.7 
57.3 
53.0 
43.2 


18.4 
19.6 

21.5 
87.] 
30.1 
36.7 




16.9 




2.4 

8.9 
12.3 
20.1 











Na.O. 



11.8 
10.4 



As will be seen from the above ideal compositions the feldspars 
make a series of chemical compounds known as silicates, in which 
there is a gradual progression from potash (K,OJ down through soda 
(Na.O) to lime (CaO). The series from Albite to Anorthite arc 
known as the "soda-lime" feldspars, Lhey are usually called "the 
plagioclases" among mineralogists. The specific gravity ranges from 
2.57 for Othoclase to 2.76 for Anorthite. The composition of actual 
samples of feldspar as found shows nearly always the presence of 
potash and soda together and pure specimens are not common. Iron 
also is generally present in small amounts causing a pinkish or even 
reddish color. 

.1/ icrocline known also as "Amazon stone," when green, is a potash 
feldspar akin to Orthoclase and has generally a green color somewhat 
like jade. It is much used for gem purposes under the name "amazon- 
ite." 

Moon stone is a form of Albite which has a beautiful blue color 
when polished or broken across the cleavage. 

Sun stone is either Oligoclase or Albite, also used as a gem stone. 
It possesses a reddish color when held in certain positions due to the 
inclusion of small pieces of iron ore or scales of mica. 

Analyses of Pennsylvania Varieties of Feldspar. 



ffe 2 Oj. 



(a) Rruml.vwiiH' Summit, 

0>) Fiviu-ii Creek 

(c) Glen Hall 

(d) Mineral Hill 



SlOa. 


Al 2 Oi. 


CaO. 


KjO. 


NajO 


65.76 
62. 6S 
70.36 
64.90 


18.91 
20.90 
l'j.31 
20.92 




12.68 
15.99 
3.00 
10.95 


1.80 


0.15 
1.56 


4.68 
3.95 





0.23 
'6!28 



(a) T. C. Hopkins, Mineral Industry, Vol. 7. n. 263. 

(b) Dana, System of Mineralogy, p. 319. Geuth Analyst. 
<d) " P. 323. 


Albite. 


66.34 
66.65 


20.72 
20.79 


1.85 
1.47 


0.98 
1.36 


9.44 
8.86 












T. O. Hopkins, op. cited. 


Oligoclase. 


SiO.. 
61.75 


AUO,. 

23.56 


KjO. 
1.11 


NajO. 
9.04 


CaO. 










63 

Uses of Feldspar. 

Feldspar is used very extensively in the manufacture of china and 
porcelain, where it is used to influence the character of the "mix" .is 
to fusion, body, etc. High grade kaolins contain sonic feldspar in 
places. It is used also as a source of alumina and potash, though 
for this last it is not yet a very satisfactory commercial source. 
Feldspar is also used as a hinder in making emery wheels, in the 
manufacture of certain sorts of glasses and enamels; as a polishing 
or scouring medium, owing to its less gritty character than silica, 
this is especially so in some scouring soaps. 



Occurrence In Pennsylvania. 

The rocks which carry feldspar in quantities large enough to be 
of any commercial value, or even in large enough quantity to be 
worked for any purpose, are all in the eastern part of the State. 
Feldspar has been found as far west as Lancaster and York counties 
and probably will be found in the very ancient rocks of the South 
Mountain, in the Adams-Franklin district, though whether in valu- 
able workable amount is doubtful. At Bald Friars on the Susque- 
hanna it occurs with black tourmaline. It has been found also in 
Lehigh county and in Berks, liucks and other places in the South 
Mountains. The chief localities and those where it has been com- 
mercially exploited are in Delaware and Chester counties. The chief 
occurrences are in rocks of a general granitic type, that is those made 
up essentially of quartz, mica and feldspar, in these rocks, as at the 
quarries near Chester, feldspar occurs in veins in the gniessic or 
granitic rocks, along with much quartz and some mica. Feldspar 
occurs also in connection with serpentine and in such places is apl 
to be associated with corundum, as at Mineral Hill in Delaware 
county. Trap rocks contain the plagioclase feldspars as an essential 
part of their constitution, but usually in very small crystals. 

To mention here all the localities where feldspar is found in Penn- 
sylvania is not practicable; it has been mined in the past and is still 
to be found along a line from the Leiperville quarries, near Chester, 
to Upland, Avondale, Media and in general along Oram Creek, (these 
localities are in Delaware county) ; in Chester county at many locali- 
ties as at Unionville, Pennsbury, West Chester, and Brinton's quarry; 
it occurs in a more or less connected line from West Philadelphia to 
Frankford, some places in good sized crystals; in Germantown, Chest- 
nut Hill, and from there to the Schuylkill are other localities. 

At Mineral Hill, Delaware county occur a great variety of feldspars: 
moonstone, sunstone, and beautiful microcline of various shades of 
green ; lliis locality has yielded rich material for the numerous collec- 
tions around Philadelphia. At Chester have been found very large 



64 

crystals, some two feet in length and 12 to 18 inches thick are in the 
collections of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, where 
there are many hundreds of feldspar crystals from the State. 

Feldspar is now (1912) mined at the following places, Avondale, 
Chatham, New Garden, Tough enamon, West Cain (potash feldspar), 
and near the Maryland line (soda feldspar), these are in Chester 
county; in Delaware county at Elam; other localities were formerly 
worked in Montgomery county. 

FLAGSTONE. (See silica, sandstone.) 
FLUORITE: Calcium fluoride, Fluorspar. 

This mineral, while not a commercial product in this State, has been 
found at a number of localities, mostly in the limestones of the Great 
Valley or in some of the iron or other mines. 

"It occurs associated with small rhombohedra of calcite in veins 
of massive calcite in the blue limestone, (Cambrian, at York). It 
is .crystalline in structure, though no perfect crystals have been 
observed. It varies in color from light to dark purple. Sp. gr.=3.13. 
Analysis showed the usual composition, the Fl being determined 
by difference. 

Ca=48.76% 
Fl=51.24% 



100.00%"* 

It is reported also, probably in the same limestone, from Pine 
Grove, Cumberland county; from S. Plum's farm in Franklin county; 
in Berks county at De Turks, Exeter township. In Chester county 
at the old Edwards quary, Newlin township, in limestone. In the 
gneissic rocks at Frankford, and Falls of Schuylkill, Philadelphia; 
at Ironton, Lehigh county, and at the Wheatley mine, Phoenixville, 
from where a sample has been analyzed by J. L. Smith. (Beport B. p. 
29.) 

Fluorine, 48.29 

Calcium , 50.81 

Phosphate of lime , trace 

Sp. gravity 3.15 

It is found also at Cornwall, Lebanon county, and at Delaware 
Water Gap. 

Fluorspar is found mostly in limestone, where it occurs in squarish 
crystals or in lump form showing a great variety of color; blue to 
purples (like amethyst quartz but much softer), green, red, white, 
yellow or almost black. It is sometimes a common mineral with lead 

*C. II. Blirenfeld. The Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. IV, part 3, July, 1890. 



65 

and zinc ores. It is easily scratched by a steel point. The chief uses 
are in foundry workings of iron and in making spiegeleisen ; as a 
source of hydrofluoric acid for etching glass; as a useful ingredient in 
enamels, glazes, artificial gems and as electrodes. It is not found in 
Hi is State in large quantity. 

GAI.ENITE. (See lead and zinc.) 
GANISTEIt. (See silica, i 

GARNET. 

Garnet like "mica" and "feldspar" is a name given to a group of 
minerals of which there are eight or ten varieties. 

The composition of garnet shows silicate minerals, with lime- 
aluminum ; magnesium-aluminum ; iron or manganese aluminum ; 
and even chromium and titanium. 

Character. Garnets are usually found in many sided crystals, are 
above steel and quartz in hardness and occur in greatest abundance 
in mica schist rock and in veins in granite gneiss and mica schists, 
along with mica, feldspar quartz and sometimes beryl. 

The following are the chief species. 

Grossularite — lime-aluminum garnet, Ca 3 Al, (Si0 4 ) 3 . 

Pyrope — magnesium-aluminum garnet, Mg 3 Al 2 (Si0 4 ) 3 . 

Almandite — iron-aluminum garnet, Fe..Al, |'Si0 4 ) 3 . 

Spessartite — Manganese-Aluminum garnet, Mn 3 Al 2 (Si0 4 ) 3 . 

Andradite — lime-iron garnet, Ca 3 Fe 2 (SiOJ 3 . 

Uvarovite — ^lime-chromium garnet, Ca 3 Cr 2 (Si0 4 ),. 

This last one, Uvarovite, is very rare. 

All of the above have been found in Pennsylvania. 

USES OF GARNET. 

Garnet is used as an ornamental stone (gem) and as an abrasive, 
or scouring and cutting material, as garnet paper and as garnet 
wheels. It is also in use as jewel material for watches. The use as 
abrasive material has been given under that head; however, its chief 
reason for this use is its habit of rather easy fracture so that new 
cutting edges are presented, as the wheel or powder is used. 

In color garnets range from the colorless or pale green grossularite 
to the brilliant dark green uvarovite. 

The common garnets are reds and browns. Pyrope, a variety usc<l 
as gem, is often a deep ruby red and is sometimes sold as genuine 
ruby. It is of inferior hardness and lustre. 

LOCALITIES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 
Grossularite is found in the Triassic shales in Cumberland county 
near New Cumberland, in the pegmatite (giant granite) veins in the 
5 



66 

quarries near Chester; it is also reported at Hummel si own, Dauphin 
county. The mica rocks of the lower Susquehanna below McCalls 
Ferry are at times somewhat full of small red garnets. In the Car- 
deza collection, now in the I'niversitv of Pennsylvania, are large 
masses of granular garnet rock with mica and quartz "from Delaware 
county." This is suitable for abrasive use. 

The chief localities for garnet, however, have been (lie quarries 
opened in the gneissic and granitic rocks in Delaware county. The 
collections in Philadelphia, at the Academy of Natural Sciences and 
at the University of Pennsylvania, have magnificent specimens taken 
from these old quarries. Along Crum Creek, in the vicinity of 
Bishops Mills, at Swarthmore and elsewhere in Delaware county gar- 
nets are frequent. In Philadelphia, Montgomery, Berks, Bucks, 
Northampton and other comities are numerous localities. In Chester 
county in Pennslmry, East and West Nottingham, Newlin, London 
Grove, Oxford, East Bradford, Elk and other townships are numerous 
localities for the iron aluminum variety. 

Near Philadelphia are very many localities which cannot be given 
here. The quarries along the Schuylkill near Conshohocken. on the 
Wissahic' on Creek, are places which show numerous garnet occur- 
rences, though not commercial ones. The rare chromium garnet has 
been found in small emerald green crystals at the old Wood mine, 
in Lancaster county.. 

At present (1912) garnet is quarried north of Chester for abras- 
ive use; it has been quarried until recently at Chelsea, Delaware 
county. 

GAS. (NATURAL.) 

The natural gas obtained in Pennsylvania has been, since it was 
first exploited, a source of great wealth, as well as a substance of 
great convenience and practical value. 

At the close of the year 1910 there were over 10,000 producing 
wells in Ihe State; these are chiefly located in the following counties: 
Elk, Greene, McKean, Warren, Washington, Armstrong, Beaver, 
Butler, Payette, Indiana. Venango and Westmoreland. 

The question is often asked as to the possibility of finding gas and 
petroleum in the eastern comities of Pennsylvania, and also in the 
counties of the central mountain section; in reply to this it may be 
said that both gas and oil have almost universally been found in those 
rock formations which do not show much disturbance or serious fold- 
ing, this folding or fracturing of the rocks seemingly not allowing 
the gas or oil to be held in natural reservoirs. Moreover, the ancient 
crystalline rocks have not been, in actual experience, the ones to carry 
either oil or gas. Some years since a well was sunk in the South 
Mountain in Adams county to obtain oil or gas, no details of the 



67 

drillings were made public and so far as has been stated no gas or oil 
were found although some evidences of oil were reported as seen at 
the surface. If either were found in the locality it would be almost, 
if not absolutely, without precedent as the rock formations are not 
at all those in which these substances occur. 

GLASS MATERIAL: SAND, ETC. 

Pennsylvania produces more glass sand than any other State, the 
amount in 1910 being nearly 450,000 tons. 

Glass sand is produced at the present time from Dagascahonda, 
Elk county; Falls Creek, Clearfield county; at Dunbar, Bellevernon 
and other places along the Monongahela river ; in the neighborhood of 
Mapletou, Huntingdon county ; Vineyard, Mifflin county, and near Oil 
City, Venango county. 

Glass sands have been worked in this State in very large quantity 
and since Colonial times, the chief sources of such material being 
from the Oriskany sandstone as in the Huntingdon-Juniata region; 
river sands and sands obtained by crushing and washing other silica 
roc!:. 

The substances used for glass making are chiefly quartz sands, 
which make up most of the mixtures, with addition of limestone, 
soda or potash compounds, such as crude salt cake ; to these are added 
lead for glass of a highly refractive character. 

The process of glass making may be compared to the process of 
"fluxing" as used by the furnace man to slag out impurities in the 
furnace; many such furnace slags, as is well known, are of a glassy 
or vitreous nature. 

GLASS-POT CLAY. 

Glass-pot clay is a special grade of fire-clay used for making pots in 
which to melt glass; it is a refractory clay which burns dense at a 
moderately low temperature, warps but little, and also resists the 
corroding or fluxing action of the glass. 

The following analysis will show the character of such a clay from 
Layton Station on the Youghiogheny river; it is a clay occurring a 
few feet below the Upper Freeport coal and doubtless could be worked 
at other places for glass-pot use. 

Glass-pot clay from Layton, Pa. 1 

Si0 2 , 64.89 

A1,0 3) 24.08 

Fe,"O s , 29 

PeO , 21 

OaO , 41 

MgO , 19 

Alkalies, 1.03 

H 2 , : 9 .29 

100.39 

■Ries, II. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper No. 11, p. 41. 



68 



GOLD. 

Gold lias been found in a number of places in Pennsylvania though 
nowhere in amount large enough to pay working expenses. In the 
sands and gravels of the Delaware under the city of Philadelphia; at 
Franconia, Montgomery county; in the copper-sulphide ores of the 
Gap mines, Lancaster county, at the Phoenixville mines; in the cop- 
per bearing rocks of the South Mountain in Adams and Franklin 
counties; at all of these localities are well authenticated finds of gold. 
1 1 was reported as occurring in the bed of Brock Creek in Lower 
Makefield township, Bucks county, in the Philadelphia Times in Janu- 
ary 1891. It is not, however, possible to consider here the reported 
localities for gold in this State, their name is legion. 

There are a number of minerals which to the in-expert eye look 30 
much like gold (hat persons are very apt to be deceived unless pos- 
sessed of some experience in handling gold ores; moreover some rich 
ores may not show any gold at all to the eye. Small scales of mica, 
iron pyrites, yellow scaly iron minerals, and others of a brighi yellow 
color have been among those to deceive persons, so that the inexpert 
should be exceedingly careful in allowing his interest or his desire for 
wealth to lead him astray over reported gold finds in this State. It 
docs not lie within the realm of probability that Pennsylvania will 
ever be a producer of gold in paying amount. Our mineral wealth is 
very great, but it does not consist in gold and silver. Small amounts 
may be reported from time to time from the sands and gravels of 
streams and from the glacial gravels but such deposits are not likely 
to be more than superficial and of veiy temporary value. 

GRANITE. 

There is very little genuine granite produced in this State. Some 
of that called granite is either "trap" (which see) or a rock known as 
gneiss. Granite properly speaking is a rock made up or composed of 
grains of orthoclase feldspar, mica (or a magnesia mineral known as 
hornblende) and quartz; granite possesses no definite layer structure 
or bedding and breaks or dresses equally well in any direction. 

Gneiss is a rock composed often of the same minerals as granite 
but these minerals are arranged in the rock in such a manner as to pro- 
duce a well defined layer or bedded structure. 

"Granite-gneiss," as the term is used, is a rock which grades from 
true granite with a granular structure into one with a banded struc- 
ture and often no sharp line can be drawn between them. 

Quartz and mica scists are banded rocks with much mica and some 
feldspar and are often used in place of granite. The important tact 
about true granite, and one which should not be lost sight of in 



69 

structural work, is the absence of any definite banded or layer struc- 
ture, so that the crushing strength is not interfered with, by varia- 
tions in structure of the rock. 

Granite has an average specific gravity of 2.65 which in a general 
way is equal to a weight of 165 pounds per cubic foot. The crushing 
strength depends partly upon the size of the grain and the minerals 
present and ranges from 15,000 to 30,000 or more per square inch. 

Granite has been reported as from Berks, Bucks, Chester, Dela- 
ware, Lancaster, Lehigh, Montgomery and Philadelphia counties. 
Much of this is undoubtedly "trap," also some is almost certainly 
gneiss; while even some marble and sandstone have been called gran- 
ite by quarrymen and exploiters. 

True granite does ocur in the State, especially in the South Moun- 
tain, also some of the gneisses are so near grauite in character that 
for Hie most part they may be used as such. There has not been 
any discovery of genuine granite in Pennsylvania of really large pro- 
portions. 

GRAPHITE. 

Graphite is a mineral form of the element carbon, C. It is a very 
soft, black mineral with a greasy feel; it is often called plumbago, 
which is somewhat misleading as graphite does not contain lead in 
any form. "Lead pencils" are made from graphite, not from lead. 

Graphite is found in scales like mica, in flakes, in fibrous form and 
in very large quantity in graphitic slates and shales. These slates 
are of less value than the other forms as they are not pure graphite. 
In addition to the above kinds is what is known commercially as 
"amorphous" graphite; this is a form of the mineral with apparently 
no definite structure. These various sorts of graphite have a wide 
range of uses dependent upon their character. 

"One of the oldest and most important applications of graphite is 
in the manufacture of crucibles for use in the steel, brass and bronze, 
and other industries. Such crucibles must have good tensile strength 
and for their manufacture a fibrous or flaky graphite is used, the 
interlocking of the fibers adding to the strength. Ground Ceylon 
lump graphite is the material most in favor in the United States for 
making crucibles, although small amounts of American flake graphite 
are also used. Amorphous graphite has never been successfully 
utilized in crucible manufacture, except for very small crucibles." 
(U. S. Geol. Survey.) 

Besides this crucible use and pencil use graphite is used for paints, 
one American firm alone producing a score or more of graphite 
paints ; it is used as a lubricating medium on wheels, axles, ball bear- 
ings, etc.; as a protective covering in foundry facings, electrotyping, 
glazing and pipe joinings; as stove polish and in electric battery and 
dynamo construction. Owing to its great importance in the arts the 



70 

natural supply is not equal to the demand and graphite is now made 
artifieialy in the electric furnace. It is important, therefore, that 
new localities for this mineral should be found. 

Graphite is generally considered to be the product of chemical and 
physical changes in rocks subsequent to their original formation; 
heat and pressure being the means of producing these changes, which 
are known among geologists as metamorphism. At all events the 
occurrences of graphite arc practically confined to those rocks such 
as schist, quartssite, gneiss, slates, veins in granites, and in lime- 
stones, which have altered in whole or in part to marble; and in 
Pennsylvania will be found in such rocks. It lias been re- 
ported from many Localities and in some instances companies 
have been organized to exploit them. At presenl (A912) graphite is 
systematically mined at Chester Springs, Coventry, Kimberton, liyres, 
Phoeniville, Chester county. Graphite is found also in scaly form 
at Williams' Farm near Kimberton ; at Boyei town, Bucks county, and 
elsewhere in the same county, as in the crystalline limestone at Van 
Arsdale's quarry near the Xcshaminy. 

Graphite is found, though in very impure form, in some of the lay- 
ers of phyllite or slate in the limestones of York, Lancaster, Dauphin 
and other counties where the Cambi ian is exposed. These limestones 
are much used as paint fillers. (See under Mineral Paint.) One of 
the difficulties of mining graphite is its frequent occurrence with 
mica. When the graphite is flaky, like mica, it is almost impossible 
to separate them by flotation in water; some of the finds in this State 
have been rendered unprofitable because of this. The graphite which 
is found in distinct veins and in quartzite rocks is the most easily 
worked. Graphite is supposed to be the resu't of alteration of some 
organic substance present in the original rock before the alteration 
took place. This organic mailer carrying carbon is essential to the 
formation of the graphite; some further discussion of this will be 
found under composition of coal. 3 

GREENOCKITE. 

Cadmium sulphide, OdS, containing cadmium 77.7 per centum. 
This very rare mineral is found mostly as an orange yellow incrusta- 
tion with a slightly greenish tint on the sulphide of zinc, spharlerite. 
Cadmium is a metal somewhat like zinc. Tt is used in making amal- 
gam fillings for teeth, and in the sulphide form as a pigment. It 
occurs in this State as incrustations on (lie zinc ores at Friedens- 
ville, Lehigh county. "Formerly cadmium was separated from the 
zinc at Bethlehem." (Genth, Rep. B. Second C.eol. Survey.) 

HALITE. SALT. (See potash and salines.) 
HEMATITE. (Sec iron I 03.) 
HYDEOZINOITB. (Bee lead and nine.] 

'For n foliar discussion of the occurancos in Pennsylvania, see Report No. 6, of this Survey, 
"The Graphites of Pennsylvania." 



71 

IRON ORES. 
Tlie minerals used as ores of iron are the following: 



Name of Mluural. 



Gouipe i OD 



Magnetite i<v a <>, 

Hematite 

L<uH,ulte (lii-uwn Hematite) l'i«o "'ii la 

Siuerite l'VCOs, ... 



llniiretleal 

Percent 

lion. 



72.40 
70.00 
59.S.9 
4S.27 



bimomte Includes several other hydrated iron ores such as turgite, 
goethite and "bog ore." 

Siderite is often in common practice called spathic or black band 
ore, clay iron stone. 

The sulphides of iron are not used as iron ores owing to the high 
content of sulphur, 

Some limonites ran very high in manganese and are classed as 
manganese ores, (see under Manganese.) 

In actual practice of iron working it is almost always found that 
the iron percentage is considerably less than the theoretical amount, 
this is due to the presence of a certain number of other elements usu- 
ally called "the gangue"; these are impurities in the ore and must be 
removed in the refining of iron and steel. These impurities are gen- 
erally silica, sulphur, phosphorus, lime, magnesia, alumina, and 
titanium; oilier elements such as arsenic chromium, and copper are 
sometimes present The magnetites at Cornwall, Penna. cany con- 
siderable copper, which is extracted as a valuable by-product. 

lion ores are highly affected in value by the sulphur and jilios 
phorus present, and are, on the basis of the phosphorus, 
distinguished as Bessemer and non-Bessemer; a Bessemer ore 
is one which does not carry over 1-1000 per centum of the iron in 
phosphorus, or one which will produce a pig-iron wiih nol more than 
1-10 per centum of phorphorus. However, the modern open-hearth 
process for steel making has to soiih; extent rendered this classifica- 
tion obsolete and allows the working of Iron ores formerly nol avail- 
able for high grade; steel making. 



IRON ORES IN PENNSYLVANIA 
Intil the year 1880 Pennsylvania produced more iron ore than any 
other Slate in the Union, although even then the amount was not 
enough to supply the furnaces and foundries of the State and ores 
were imported from outside to supply the local demand. About 1880 
the opening to the market of the Lake Superior deposits caused a 
readjusting of the ore market for the entire country, and more-over, 



72 

some of the older ore workings in this State were exhausted, so that 
the ore production from Pensylvania showed a decrease. The sources 
of the ore in the State were of a rather varied character, being repre- 
sentative of all the iron minerals named above. 

Siderite was mined in the western portion of the State fiom a 
compact layer, 6 inches to one foot thick, resting upon the Vanport 
or "Ferriferous" limestone; it was in part altered to an oxide or 
hydrated condition. 

These ores above the Vanport limestone are sometimes known as 
the Buhr stone ore from the fact that a layer of flinty matter lies at 
times above the limestone; and as will be seen from the analyses they 
are in part carbonate and in part hematite or liinonite. 

The following analyses by McOreath are selected by Piatt to show 
the average character of this ore from Armstrong County:" 

BLUB CARBONATE ORE. 

Protoxide of iron , 42 . 428 

Sesquioxide of iron , 2 . 233 

Bisulphide of iron, 187 

Protoxide of manganese, 799 

Protoxide of cobalt, 010 

Alumina, 916 

Lime, 7 . 150 

Magnesia, 1.881 

Sulphuric acid, 030 

Phosphoric acid, 334 

Carbonic acid, 32.022 

Water, 1.950 

Insoluble residue 9 . 460 

100.000 

Metallic iron, 34.650 

Metallic manganese, 619 

Sulphur, 112 

Phosphorus , 146 

ROASTED ORES. 

Per cent. 

Protoxide of iron, none 

Sesquioxide of iron , 6u . 928 

Sesquioxide of manganese, 1 .563 

Sesquioxide of cobalt, 020 

Alumina, 2 . 688 

Lime, 7 . 710 

Magnesia, 901 

Sulphuric acid 580 

Phosphoric acid 1 . 074 

Carbonic acid absorbed,) g „g g 

Water, J 

Insoluble residue, 14.520 

100.349 

Metallic iron, 46.150 

Metallic manganese, 1 .088 

Sulphur, 232 

Phosphorus, 469 

RED ORE. 

Per cent. 

Sesquioxide of iron, 70.714 

Sesquioxide of manganese, 2.421 

Sesquioxide of cobalt, 610 

Alumina, 1-491 

•Rep. H5, 2' Pa. Geological Survey, p. lxvi. Ilarrisburg, 1880. 



73 

Lime , 7 . 630 

Magnesia, , 547 

Sulphuric acid, 010 

Phosphoric acid, -765 

Carbonic acid, , 5.230 

Water, 7,465 

Insoluble residue, 3.860 

100.143 

Metallic iron, 49.500 

Metallic manganese 1.686 • 

Sulphur, 004 

Phosphorus, .' 334 

BROWN ORE. 

Srsquioxide of iron, 73.928 

Koquioxide of manganese, 1 -344 

Sesquioxide of cobalt 020 

Alumina, .- 1.532 

Lime, 1-610 

Magnesia, 501 

Sulphuric acid, Trace. 

Phosphoric acid -740 

Carbonic acid, None. 

Water 12.615 

Insoluble residue, 8.060 

SIDERITE, from Wharton Mine, 2 Miles East of Hellertown, Northumberland 
Co. (Rep. M2, p. 188, McCreath) . 

FeO, 54.3851 

} Fe = 43.050 

Fe 2 3 , 1.071J 

MnO, 3.25 =2.521 Metallic manganese. 

CoO 0.010 

A1,0, 1.457 

CaO, 0.540 

MgO, 0.540 

SO,, 0.112 = .045 Sulphur 

P,0 0.263 = .115 Phosphorus 

CO,, 35.340 

H,0, (est.) 923 

Insol. Si0 2 (?) 2.105 

100.00 



Siderite was formerly mined quite widely in the w< stern part of 
(lie State from beds in the various coal formations, and in the central 
and eastern sections from the Pottsville and Mauch Chunk forma- 
tions. Limonite was frequently associated with it. 

The chief localities were in the counties of Bedford, Cambria, Clear- 
field, Fayette, Fulton, Huntingdon, Mifflin, Lackawanna, Lycoming, 
Somerset; and to a less extent in Greene and Washington counties. 
Siderite is now mined at the Lehigh Gap for paint ore, q. v. 

Limonite, (brown hematite) ; this ore was formerly one of the great 
sources of natural wealth in Pennsylvania and furnished from al- 
most innumerable bants and pits the ore for the great chain of fur- 
naces along the Lehigh, Susquehanna and Schuylkill rivers, and from 
the deposits in the western portion of the State, helped lay the founda- 
tion for the vast iron and steel industry which has made the fame of 
Pittsburgh world wide; 



76 

Partial analyses of Cornwall ore*. 

(A. S. McCreath, Analyst.) 



Metallic Iron 

Metallic manganese 

Metallic copper, 

Alumina, 

Lime 

Magnesia, 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus 

Sili.-a 

Phosphorus in 100 parts iron, 



1. 


2. 


3. 


194.900 


51.460 


48.800 


.168 


.07:! 


.057 


.006 


.569 


.559 


.824 


1.080 


2.315 


l.oio 


2.600 


4.830 


1.131 


6.652 


5.531 


.071 


8.459 


1.807 


.011 


.010 


♦018 


3.980 


12.270 


12.940 


.021 


.019 


.036 



Iron 

Silica. ... 
Alumina, 
Lime, — 
Magnesia, 
Copper, .. 

Manganese, 

Sulphur, 
Phosphorus 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


43.40 
11.13 


43.00 
14.02 


42.75 
22.10 


39.60 
20.20 


38.05 
16.13 


I 18.90 


13.86 


11.45 


19. IS 


19.77 


00.01 
00.01 
00.43 
00.09 


00.59 

00.53 
00.02 




00.12 
00.23 
1.94 

00.06 


00.56 
00.42 
1.14 
00.04 


00.59 
00.01 



41.900 

.194 

.319 

4.970 

2.810 

7.487 

.428 

.019 

20.910 

.045 



♦Lesley and d'Invilliers. Ann. Rep. Second Geol. Survey Pennsylvania for 1S85, 1S86, pp. 532, 533. 

1. — Analysis of 115 pieces of niggerhead ore from Middle Head. 

2.— Analysis of fine or soft No. 3 ore from west eut, north side. Middle Hill. 

3. — Analysis of "No. 1 ore * from east face, Middle Hill. 

4. — Analysis of "No. 1 light ore" from west cut south face, Middle Hill. 

All the alwve were dried at 212-1- °F- before analysis. 

Partial analyses of ores from Berks and York counties.* 



(6) 



34.55 
21.21 

22.38 

00.17 
00.21 
1.64 
00.03 



*Losley and d'Invilliers. Op. cit. page 537. 

(1) — Black ore, 163 pieces, from Warwick mine, Boyertown, Berks county ; A. S. McCreath, 
An.'ilysl . 

(2)— Magnetic ore from Islaud mine. Reading, slope No. 1, Leanord Peckttt, Heading. 

(3)— Dillstuirg ore from A. Underwood's mine; McCreath. 

(4j — Magnetic ore from Wheatfield mine, Berks county. 

(6) Magnetic ore, 25 pounds, from Island mine. Beading; McCreath. 

(6) — "Rliie ore," 20 pounds, from Phoenix mined, Boyertown; McCreath. 



Berks county. The Wheatfield group of mines is situated about 7 
miles southeast of Reading. The ore is found "in irregular masses, 
having a general layer like form, interbedded with limestone strata, 
lint the ore bodies are numerous rather than large, and lack of per- 
sistency is a marked characteristic." (Spencer). This locality has 
been studied by d'Invilliers: Sec. Geol. Survey Penna. D3, pt. 1, 1883. 
Geology of the South Mountain belt of Berks county. The Wheat- 
liehl ores were mined in 1005-06; the ore was reported to be soft ami 
earthy to a depth of 30 or 40 feet, probably due to the decomposition 
of pyrite in the original ore. The soft ores had a ready sale owing 
to the absence of sulphur, which is so high in the unweathered ores 
that they need to be roasted to make them usable in a blast furnace. 
(op. cit. page 31, Spencer.) "From a practical standpoint deep pros- 
pecting in the vicinity of the main workings of the Wheatfield group 



77 

would seem to offer better chances for a successful outcome than ex- 
plorations elsewhere in this vicinity." (Spencer, op. cit. page 35.) 

Deposits at Boycrtoini. These ores occur in narrow area or strip 
between the Mesozoic to the southeast and the' gniesses and sand 
stones northwest of Boyertown ; this strip is 2 or more miles in length 
but the known ore beds are within an area of less than one-half mile. 
These deposits are distinctively of the Cornwall type. From the ex- 
plorations so far made it does not seem possible to arrive at a final 
conclusion regarding these deposits, but further exploration seems to 
be warranted. (Spencer, op. cit. pp. 57-61.) 

The Warwick, known as the Jones mine, is situated about 3-4 mile 
east of Joanna ; it is now in a flooded and abandonded state. 

The iron minerals present in this ore are magnetite, pyrite, and 
in addition chalcopyrite, a copper-iron sulphide. 

YORK COUNTY DEPOSITES.* 

"Iron ores like those of the Cornwall mines occur at several locali- 
ties in northern York county. The principal group of mines is sit- 
uated about one mile east of Dillsburg, and a second smaller group 
is located just south of Yellow Breeches Creek near Grantham cross- 
ing, on the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. Specular hematite 
with some associated magnetite has been worked at Minebank school- 
house, about 2 miles southwest of Wellsville, and minor pockets and 
indications of ore have been found at various other localities. Most 
of these occurrences had been discovered prior to 1873 and are de- 
scribed or mentioned in Report CC of the Second Geological Survey 
of Pennsylvania and in the Annual Report for 1886. 

"The Dillsburg ore field has a greater extent than any of the other 
districts which furnish ore of the Cornwall type. Ore has been 
taken from more than 30 openings, including open pits and under- 
ground mines, and these workings are distributed over a zone nearly 
1| miles long and from one-fourth to one-half mile wide." 

GRANTHAM MINES. 

On the south side of Yellow Breeches Creek, near Grantham Cross 
ing. are situated three old mines, known as the Landis or Fuller, the 
Porter and the Shelley. Outcrops in the railroad cuts and mater- 
ial on the mine dumps show that the deposits at this place occur in 
Mesozoic strata, which include beds of limestone conglomerate. 
North of Yellow Breeches Creek the rock is Paleozoic limestone, and 
just south of the mines diabase appear. 

The folowing notes are given by d'Invilliers.* 

"The old Fuller or Landis mine is owned and worked by Mr. 
Shelley, who states that a shaft 80 feet deep passed through diabase 
to a chimney-shaped bed of ore dipping north-northeast. The same 

♦Spencer, op. cit. pp. 71-72. 



78 

ore was struck 100 feet east by a 40-foot shaft, in which the ore also 
dips towards the creek. According to Mr. Shelley, there are four or five 
beds here, separated by short intervals of hard rock of a white color, 
and not unlike a baked slatey sandstone. In April, 1887, prepara- 
tions were being made to sink on I he outcrop of a lower bed showing 
about 100 yards south of die shaft. 

"Immediately across a narrow ravine to the east of this opening a 
large amount of ore was formerly raised by Mr. Puller, and the opera- 
tion is supposed to have been stopped owing to the occurrence of "Po- 
tomac marble," which cuts out the ore for a considerable extent 
through the mine and along the railroad. This rock shows largely 
through the field and along the track, where an abandoned cut devel- 
oped a large body of soft surface ore, resulting from the decomposi- 
tion of the bed, 5 to 8- feet thick, which was encountered in the bottom 
of the pit. Mr. Shelley says that there are 13 acres in this property 
through which no pinching in the ore beds occurs, so far as developed." 

Hematite. This mineral is found in various kinds in Pennsylva- 
nia, as massive red deposits, as fossil ores with limonite, as specular 
ore, and as micaceous hematite. 

Fossil ore, (dyestone ore) occurs in the following localities: In the 
Clinton group, from Bloomsburg, Columbia county, and Danville, 
Montour comity, traceable through Centre, Fulton, Juniata, Mifflin, 
Northumberland, Perry, Snyder, Union and Huntingdon counties of 
middle Pennsylvania, and thence through Bedford county, to the 
State line on the south. Fossil ores were also found in the north 
in Bradford, Lycoming and Tioga counties. 

These fossil ores are of several sorts, hard, soft, and block ore; the 
following data are taken from Sec. Geol. Survey of Penna., Final 
Summary Report, 1892, Vol. 2 pp. 750 ft'. The center of the fossil 
ore industry of the State was at Danville and Bloomsburg on the vSus- 
quehanna (North Branch), at Frankstown and Holidaysburg on the 
upper Juniata, at Orbisonia in Huntingdon county, and along the 
Lewistown valley in Mifflin and Snyder counties. These localities 
supported furnaces which depended on a mixture of the limestone ores, 
hard and soft, and the block ore from the sandstone, which in many 
instances lay between I he layers of the limestone. The soft ore was 
a limonite due to the superficial alteration of the hematite, (the hard 
ore), while the block ore as stated was a sandstone rich in iron. 

Analyses of these ores show the following results, taken from the 
report above cited. 

tAnn. Ropt. Geol. Survey Pennsylvania for 1886, pt. 4. 1887, pp. 1513-1514. 



79 



• 


i. 


2. 


3. 

t 


4. 


5. 




3.50 
8 
87.80 
7.W 
0.88 
0.80 
0.02 
0.47 


7. or. 
24.11 
60.49 
3.46 
LIS 
0.13 
0.02 
0.70 
3.20 


0.00 
5.68 

38.81 
4.34 

26.13 
2.88 
0.10 
0.23 

23.00 


0.18 
6.04 

28.65 
6.96 

29.44 
2.17 
0.60 
0.15 

21.66 


0.00 


Silica 


27.28 




62.23 




8.29 




2.43 




1.54 




0.17 




1.66 




a trace. 











1 and 2 arc the soft ore. 3 ami 4 are the hard ores, 5 is the "Mock. ' 



The Danville ores were first worked in 1839 by D. L. Leavitt; subse- 
quent to 1880 by the Beading company: The working of these ores 
cnme to a stop for the same reason that the limonite ores are no 
longer worked. To quote from Lesley, (op. cit. p. 752) "***the long, 
rich fossil ore outcrops of Middle Pennsylvania were a source of 
wealth both to individuals and to the State. Now, still richer and 
more cheaply mined ores from the Lakes, from Cuba, Spain and 
Africa, have almost killed the fossil ore industry, and the hard fossil 
of the deeper parts of the bed is of little or no value." 

To say that the fossil ores of the entire State are worked out is how- 
ever another matter, as there are places where these ores are still 
to be seen in deposits which seem to indicate some workable value. 
The deposits are however of very uncertain extent as they are apt to 
pinch out or run out in non-iron bearing rock. It is rather character- 
istic of them also to run so high in lime that it is rather profitless to 
work certain grades of them. However, it would seem to much to 
say that they are of no probable further value without more extended 
investigation. 

The red hematite deposits of Spang Hill, Berks County, Pa. This 
locality has been known to carry iron ores for a long time and ex- 
ploitation pits have from time to time been opened in and about this 
locality. In the Report D3, Sec. Geol. Survey of Pehna., page 359, 
several open cuts and a tunnel are mentioned at the old mine of 
Kaufman & Spang, about one mile east of Spangsville; but as the 
old openings were all closed or fallen in it was not theu possible to 
make an estimate as to the probable value of the red hematites of 
this general locality. The locality lies east of Reading in a clus- 
ter of rounded hills of the South Mountain, in Earl township. 

At the present time The Manatawney Bessemer Ore Company is 
making extensive exploitations in the hope of opening up and develop- 
ing a sufficient body of workable ore to make permanent working a 
profitable matter. A railroad has been surveyed and is in process 
of construction to transport the ore to furnace. The grading of 
this railroad has cut through the several geological formations to 



80 

mhIi an extent that a much clearer idea of the general geology of the 
region may now be had than formerly. As is so frequently the case 
in 1 lie South Mountain the structure is of some considerable complex- 
ily. However, the following may be stated in a tentative way as 
seeming to be probable in the light of the present exposures of the ore 
rock. 

The mass of the ore bearing rock is apparently in intermediate 
contact between a very highly serpentinized limestone on the one 
hand ; and a series of metomorphosed sediments of a shally character 
which in turn are in a probable unconformity with a quartzite, 
Chickies or Hardyston; the whole has been subjected to several stages 
of ingeous action as the presence of basic and acid schists and 
gneisses would seem to show. 

Whether these igneous intrusives are anterior to or are responsible 
for the metamorphism of the sedimentaries, or whether a general sub- 
sequent metamorphism altered all of them it is not practicable now 
to say; the second supposition seems the most probable one. The 
point is whether these igneous masses have been the original carrier 
of the iron salts or whether they have altered an iron deposit already 
present. It has been claimed, or at any rate suggested, for the iron 
deposits at Manatawney that they are due to segregation or secondary 
enrichment as a result of the above mentioned igneous action. There 
seems more reason to believe that the hematite is due to an alteration 
of an iron deposit formed by precipitation of some iron salt by the 
limestone above mentioned, although it is not here claimed that this 
is established as true. A later igneous action is seen in the presence 
of diabase of the fine grained type common in the Trias elsewhere 
in the State ; this diabase is so far as seen entirely unaltered and cuts 
up through the other rock members present. It has not been reported 
in the body of the ore rock. 

The quartzite is in part of a very pebbly character and in part of 
a very fine compact nature, as along the Susquehanna River. 

The ore itself is a red hematite of a rather siliceous character, in 
some cases very highly so. So far as may be seen from inspection of 
the exploitation pits and the ore from the main entry it is rather 
variable in character as to the silica. Part of it runs as dense, hard, 
compact hematite, of a dark metallic color, but most of it is asso- 
ciated with considerable free quartz which in some instances is pres- 
ent in lumps or streaks. 

Sulphur is present in the form of yellow pyrite in practically all 
of the ore now shown. It is reported that the ore runs as high as 
68 per cent, iron; this while possible in selected samples is hardly a 
possibility for the main mass of the ore owing to high quantity of 
visible silica. 



81 

Present openings of the ore: These are shafts, drill holes, pits, and 
a tunnel or main entry extending into the ore bearing rock to a dis- 
tance of from 75 to 100 feet, at this point a shaft some 40 or more 
feet deep has been sunk into the ore. At the end' of this main entry 
the distance, vertical, from the surface is about 100 feet, which willi 
a further downward pit of 40 or more feet makes a total thickness 
of approximately 150 feet down through the ore bearing mass. The 
exploratory work has been extended to an approximate distance of 
800 feet long by 400-500 feet wide by drills, shafts, pits and the main 
opening above mentioned. Throughout this area the ore is not uni- 
formly present but appears to be more concentrated in a mass ex- 
tending parallel with the length of the trad. Some variation of 
thickness is also to be noted, as the ore is not, so far ;il least as may 
be seen, of a uniform extent. 

Allowing for discrepancies of a considerable extent there would 
still seem to be a muss of hematite of a workable size, and of com 
mercial value provided the ore is of a grade of purity to compete with 
the better ores from elsewhere. Of course there is a possibility that 
the ore when it is more fully opened may not show as 
much continuity in the mass as is indicated in the present 
main entry. The borings do not in all cases seem to show an equal 
depth of lateral extent. That some of the extravagant claims made 
for this locality are manifestly not true should not however be 
allowed to hide the fact that present openings show promise of a 
tract of workable size. Whether or not this ore will in the mass of 
it show a chemical character to make it marketable is however 
another matter. In the presence of so much silica the sulphur ap- 
parently present would seem to make bessemer working of this ore 
a doubtful matter. A considerable sum of money has been spent 
on opening this tract and in constructing railroad connections. It 
is very much to be desired that the enterprise shown should result 
in the development of a really valuable ore deposit; such a deposit 
would be a source of wealth to the State as well as to individuals. 

Specular iron ore, (red hematite), occurs in the following locali- 
ties: Mined with magnetite at Cornwall, Lebanon county, near Dur- 
ham, Bucks county; near Hanover, at Dillsburg and Wellsville; the 
Codorous region, York county, (micaceous hematite) ; with magnetic 
iron ores in Chester county; some scattering exposures in the York 
county basin; micaceous iron ore in Catholic Valley; southwest ridge 
of South Mountain, near Chambersburg, Franklin county, (not 
mined). 



82 



KAOLIN (SEE CLAY.) 
LEAD AND ZINC. 
These two metals quite commonly are found together in nature 
and occur also in a great many minerals, comparatively few of which 
are of commercial use as sources of metal. 

The chief ores of lead are as follow: (all have been found in Penn- 
sylvania). 



Name of Mineral. 


Composition. 


Percentage 

of Lead. 




PbS 






PbCOt, 






1'liSu, 




Pyromorphite, 




PbsPiOs+PbOls 











The ores of zinc, so far as this State is concerned, are as follows: 



Name of Mineral. 


Composition. 


Percentage 

of Zinc. 








67.00 






51.96 




Il.Zii.SiO, 


HydrozincitQi 




ZnCOa+aZn(OH)a 


60.00 







Various other zinc ores are occasionally found associated with the 
above ; these are of no importance in this State. 

Practically all of these lead minerals, together with some others 
of a very rare character, have been found at the old Wheatly mines 
near Phoenixville, and at the Ecton mine; magnificent specimens of 
the carbonate and sulphate, together with the phosphate, were found 
at Phoenixville. At Phoenixville, and also at Perkiomen, were found 
very fine specimens of sphalerite in the old works of the mines ; cala- 
mine and smithsonite were found in fine specimens in the Friedens- 
ville mines. 

Other localities for both lead and zinc minerals are: 

Galena occurs as follows: Sinking Valley, Blair county, accom- 
panying zinc ores ; with pyrite in sandstone, Bradford county ; New 
Britain, Bucks county; Phoenixville mines, Chester county; Pequea 
mine, Lancaster county (argentiferous) ; Ecton mines, near Shannon- 
ville, Montgomery county; near Pottsville, Schuylkill county. 

Smithsonite occurs as follows: Friedensville zinc mines (with cal- 
amine and blende), Lehigh county; Sinking Valley, Blair county; 
Lancaster zinc mines, Lancaster county. Not worked alone as an 
ore. 

Sphalerite (Zineblende) occurs as follows: Friedensville zinc 
mines, Saucon Valley with blend and smithsonite in limestone, Le- 
high county; Lancaster zinc mines and Pequea mine, Lancaster 



83 

county, with galena; Sinking Valley, Blair county, with galena and 
sinithsonite (in places); New Britian, Bucks county, with galena; 
Espy, Columbia county, with lead ores and in considerable quantify; 
Ecton mines near Shannonville, Montgomery county. No longer 
worked. 

Wulfenite (Molybdate of lead) occurs in the following localities: 
Lead mines near Shannonville, Montgomery county; Wheatley lead 
mines, Phoenixville, Chester county; Pequea mines, Lancaster county. 

Localities for lead ores were opened in Blair county as early as 
the Revolutionary War (Pa. State Archives, Vols. 6, 7, 8, 9). In 1875 
diamond drill holes were sunk in the Sinking Valley region but the 
results were not regarded as favorable. (Pa. Sec. Geol. Sur. Rep. T., 
Piatt). The Friedensville locality, Lehigh county, was worked for- 
merly for zinc and considerable spelter obtained; the ore was in part 
calamine and part sphalerite. No lead or zinc ores are worked at 
present in this State. 

LIMESTONE; LIME; CEMENT ROCK. 

Limestone is one of the most important mineral products of the 
State. 

Limestone may represent two distinct types known as Calcite and 
Dolomite. These are respectively Calcium Carbonate, CaC0 3 , for 
Calcite; and Calcium Magnesium Carbonate, (CaMg)C0 3 for the 
Dolomite. 

Normal Calcite is equivalent to 

CaO, 56.00 

C0 2 , 44.00 

100.00 

Normal Dolomite, where Calcium and Magnesium are in propor- 
tions of 1 :1, is equivalent to 

CaO, 30.401 

MgO, 21.701 This equals (CaC0 3 , 54.35 

C0 2 , 47.90J lMgC0 3 , 45.65 

100 00 100.00 

In actual occurrence limestones grade into innumerable variations 
as to relative proportions of calcium and magnesium oxides ; in com- 
mon practice a limestone with 5 per cent, or over of magnesia, MgO, 
is usually called dolomite. 

In addition, limestone often carry certain proportions of clay or 
"shale," when thej r are known as "argillaceous"; or silica (quartz), 
when they are said to be "siliceous." 

"Lime" is a term applied in common speech to the product of 
burned or calcined limestone and is the oxide of calcium (or in case 
of the dolomite a mixture of oxides of calcium and magnesium) ; thus: 





VJS 








ja g 1 








S &c 












OQ © 




d-fl 




gpL, 








M . 








0> 








S-° 








f 


: 








o 




3^ 




5 ? 




-*-> — < 




■X OJ 








&t"^ 












2 K 












j 



o 






o 

o 

to 




85 

"The specific gravity of cement shall not be less than 3.10. The 
cement shall not contain more than 1.75 per cent, of anhydrous sul- 
phuric acid, S0 3 ; nor more than 4 per cent, of magnesia." ( Year 
Book Amer. Soc. for Testing Materials, 1910, p. 108). 

Under the account of the Lehigh Cement district will be found 
analyses of cement limestones as actually in use. Analyses of the 
Vanport and Freeport limestones are given under the limestones of 
Western Pennsylvania. The limestones of Mifflin county, especially 
at Milroy, have been worked in enormous quantities for blast furnace 
flux. They have been opened in the past as cement rock quarries but 
are not now reported to be used for this purpose. 

Cement plants are in operation in the Lehigh section; in Mercer 
county at Sharon ; in Lawrence county at New Castle, and Wampum ; 
in Lancaster county, York county and in Allegheny county. 

The following analyses of the Cambrian limestone of the York- 
Lancaster section are given as showing the very high degree of 
purity which some Pennsylvania limestones possess. 

Analyses of Limestone from, Quarry West of York. 
(Analyses by Dr. Charles H. Ehrenfeld, York, Pa.) 



SiO. 

FcOa+Al-Oj, 

CiiCO:, 

MtfCOa 



Total, 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


0.06 


0.05 


0.08 


0.06 


0.06 


0.06 


0.44 


0.60 


09.70 


99.76 


9S.S8 


99.33 


trace. 

99.82 


trace. 


0.50 


15 


99.87 


99.90 


100.04 



0.56 
0.26 
97.23 
2.03 



100.08 



No sulphur in any of the above. 

Others in the same general district and in Dauphin county run 
almost pure dolomites, that is normal, and free from iron, silica, etc. 

It is probably true that nearly every section of the State has lime 
suitable for some one of its many uses. 

Under glass making will be found analyses of limestones suitable 
for such uses. 



LEWISTOWN LIMESTONE (Lower Helderberg Formation). 

The Lewistown limestone and the Trenton (in part Cambrian) of 
the Sec. Geol. Survey of Penna. are found in the central part of the 
State in great abundance though not always of equal purity or value. 

The Lewistown limestone proper measures 162 feet in thickness 
in Huntingdon county and 185 feet at Lewistown in Juniata county. 
These thicknesses are maintained throughout the mountain belt of 
Middle Pennsylvania, west of the Susquehanna river. 

Very exact descriptions of this formation, with measurements of 
its individual beds, are given in Report F. Sec. Geol. Survey of Penna. 



86 

Analyses given below of the Lewistown limestone from Blair and 
Huntingdon counties are taken here from Report MM. Sec. Geol. 
Survey of Penna., analyses by A. S. McCreath. 

BLAIR COUNTY. 



Baker 

(Lower) 



Carbonate of lime 

Carbonate of magnesia, .. 
UaiUc ui iron ami alumina, 

Sulphur, 

PfcoSphorus, 

Insoluble residue, 



Baker's quarry, Altoona ; three layers of the limestone. 



Baker 


Baker 


(Upper) 


(Middle) 


95.661 


-95.089 


1.547 


1.5S1 


.842 


.644 


.103 


.029 


.015 


020 


2.50O 


3.000 



93.571 

1.521 

.570 

.027 

.009 

3.020 



HUNTINGDON COUNTY. 



Carbonate of lime, .... 
Carbonate of magnesia, 

Carbonate of iron 

Alumina, 

bul|_)uur, 

I'uospliorus, 

Insoluble residue, 



McCarthy 


McCarthy 


89.292 

2.557 

( 1.783 


47.300 
2.011 
1.667 


.059 

.027 

5.30O 


.1.8 

.027 

49.080 



'C. It. McCarthy's quarry, near Saltillo. Specimen taken one hundred and twenty-rive feet iron: 
lottum of formation. 

-C. K. McCarthy's quarry, near Saltillo. Specimen taken as a representative of some of the 
flinty beds which exist in the series. 



The greater portion of Western Pennsylvania is underlain by coal- 
bearing rocks, in which occur a large number of limestones, though 
only a few of them attain workable thickness. Following is a list of 
the principal limestone beds, together with their maximum thickness 
and approximate positions. 



s 

SSI 



- i- hj 









3 S-' 



- ? 





■ «- 


Ii 




K 


"«&■■ 






]» * 




^F *> 


]£i 






■ ■ 








is^^H 




Iff 




Pnh 


1 * 






1 ■ 


'■1 




1 m — 


.iwfl 




" 


! M 






\\amm 




— ws 

1 n '^SB 




a S« lH 


R^^RT\' . 


r * ' ;MPl 








Hifi * »9k 


/ywlL«_ 


■Sli * V\'^B / i 


Hr^ aTtw^ 


l i VhbmI 


■ - ^ -fW 


° fli 


P i^jpWf; v 


wv |H 





87 



LIST OF PRINCIPAL LIMESTONES. 



Formation. 




Approximate Stratigraphic Position. 



as 

Feet. 
SO 
35 

18 
90 



10 

12 
6 



10 

22 



Permian formation, Dunk 
;i ril or Upper Barren 
measures, 



Mnnongaltela formation, oi 
Upper Productive meas- 
ures, 



Conemaugb formation, or 
Lower Barren measures,. 



Allegheny formation, or 
Lower Productive meas- 



Pottsville formation, . . 
Miuicli ('hunk formation, 



Pocono formation, 



Upper Washington lime- 
stone (No. 6), 



[Waynesburg limestone, . 

Benwood, or Great, 
I limestone ; 

! Upper member, or Union- 
I town limestone. 
I Lower member, 
j Sewickley, or Fishpot, 
i limestone. 

Redstone limestone. 
f Pittsburgh limestone, 
I Ames, 

{ Elk Lick, or Crinoidal, 
l limestone. 

Upper Freeport lime- 
stone. 

Lower Freeport lime- 
stone. 

Johnstown limestone, 

Van port, or Ferriferous, 
limestone. 
\ Upper and Lower Mer- 
I eer limestones. 
j Greenbrier, or Mountain 
I limestone. 

Loyalhanna, or Silic- 
eous limestone. 

Benezette limestone of 

Elk Co. 



Top of "Washington formation, 250 to 
425 feet alwve Waynesburg coal, ... 



20 feet below "Waynesburg coal, 



120 fret above Pittsburg coal 

Over 100 feet above Pittsburg coal,.. 

30 to 70 feet above Pittsburg coal,.. 
20 feet below Pittsburg coal, 

Midway between Pittsuurg aud Upper 
Freeport coals, 

Below Upper Freeport coal, 

Below Lower Freeport coal, 

Below Upper Kittanning coal, 

Below Lower Kittanning coal 

Between Homewood and Conoquenes- 
sing sandstones 

40 to 50 feet above bottom of Mauch 
Chunk, 

Upper portion of Pocono, 



an 
60 



WASHINGTON UPPER LIMESTONE. 

The Washington Upper Limestone occurs at the base of the Greene 
formation, Dunkard series, (Upper Barren Measures), sometimes 
thirty feet thick. It is usually divided into several layers. The 
upper part is quite slaty and is blue on the freshly exposed surface; 
the middle layers are dark, almost black, and frequently mottled 
with drab. They are exceedingly brittle and yield a limestone of 
good quality. The lower part is ordinarily of a light flesh color, and 
in point of purity is scarcely inferior to the middle portions. 

Its thickness varies from six to thirty feet, being greatest in the 
central portions of Washington county. 

ANALYSIS OF UPPER WASHINGTON LIMESTONE, WASHINGTON CO. 1 

Carbonate of lime, 72.866 

Carbonate of magnesia, 3.813 

Oxide of iron and alumina , 2 . 929 

Sulphur, 155 

Phosphorus, 061 

Insoluble residue, 17.380 

UNIONTOWN OR GREAT LIMESTONE. 

This limestone bed lies in the Monongahela Formation (Upper Pro- 
ductive Coal Measures), between the Union town and Sewickley coal 
beds. 



^rom opening one mile east of "Washington, at tunnel on Hempfleld railroad extension, Washing- 
ton county. From the middle of the bed. 



88 

On the Monongahela river it occurs in two divisions, separated by 
sandstone or shale; the top member being about fifteen feet thick, and 
the lower member fifty-two feet thick. 

The following analyses will represenl the average character of the 
limestones : 

WASHINGTON COUNTY— 1 MILE NORTH OF CANNONSBURG. 



Carbonate of Lime 

Carbonate of magnesia, 

Carbonate of Iron, 

Alumina 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus 

Insoluble residue 



Upper layer. 


Middle layer. 


Bottom layer. 


58.887 


4S.823 


47.080 


14.649 


20.6a 


28.628 


j 3.306 


» 3.625 
3.523 


7.511 


.097 


.SOS 


.069 


.049 


.051 


.127 


13.300 


22.520 


15.750 



SOMERSET COUNTY. 



1 


2 


Keystone. 


Saylor Hill. 


72.623 


85.732 


12.614 


5.098 


2.239 


1 2.871 


.972 




.159 


.104 


.005 


.037 


9.180 


6.220 



Carbonate of lime, 
Carbonate Of may;] 
Carbonate of iron 

Alumina 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus 

Insoluble residue, 



I Keystone Coal and Manufacturing Co. 'a quarry, two ami a half miles south-west of Meyersdale. 
Bard, compacl , bluish grey. 
■Sajlor Mill quarry, three quarters of a mile vest from Heyersdale. 

SEWICKLEY LIMESTONE. 

This is I he "Fishpot Limestone" of Frof. Stevenson's Reports K. 
and TvK., underlying the Sewickley coal at an interval of about fif- 
teen feet. It varies considerably in thickness, reaching its maximum 
on Bedstone creek, Fayette county, where it is thirty feet thick and 
of excellent quality. 

The average character of Uie Sewickley limestone is shown by the 
following analysis: 



ANALYSIS OF SEWICKLEY LIMESTONE. 1 

Carbonate of lime, 80.647 

Carbonate of magnesia, 2.217 

Carbonate of iron, 1.657 

Bisulphide of iron, 1.125 

Alumina, 54.1 

Sulphuric ;i <-i<i 052 

Phosphoric acid, 066 

Water 1 .010 

Carbonaceous matter, 1.250 

Insoluble residue, 10.770 

99.337 
1 01iphant Furnace quarry, Georges township, Fayette county. 



89 
BEDSTONE LIMESTONE. 

This limestone, when present, directly underlies the Redstone coal 
bed. Its occurrence is very irregular, and its character very variable. 

ANALYSES OF REDSTONE LIMESTONE. 

(1) (2) 

Carbonate of line, 66-471 80.625 

Carbonate <>f magnesia, 17.711 6.152 

Carbonate of iron, 5.178) 

Alumina, 812f 1.825 

Sulphur, 080 .093 

Phosphorus, 048 .02.3 

Insoluble residue, 9.460 4.040 

■Lemont Pomace quarrv, three miles north-east of Dniontown, Fayette coonty, 

! Manasses J. Ueeelu-y's quarry, two and one half miles southwest of Salisbury. Somerset county. 

PITTSBUEGH LIMESTONE. 

This limestone underlies the Pittsburgh coal at an interval of 
about twenty feet. It has a wide range throughout Southwestern 
Pennsylvania and extends eastward across the Allegheny Mountain, 
into the Cumberland basin of Maryland, showing also in the Salis- 
bury basin in Somerset county. 

ANALYSIS OF PITTSBURGH LIMESTONE. 

Carbonate of lime, 82.768 

Carbonate of magnesia 2.875 

Oxide of iron and alumina, 2.830 

Sulphur 156 

Phosphorus, 011 

Insoluble residue, 10.327 

A. H. Pulton's quarry, at West Lebanon. Indiana county. 

UPPER FREEPORT LIMESTONE. 

This limestone lies at an interval of a few feet below the Upper 
Freeport coal in the Allegheny formation. 

The average character of the limestone is shown by the following 
analyses : 

ANALYSES OF UPPER FREEPORT LIMESTONE. 

(1) (2) 

Carbonate of lime, 89.821 54.768 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.801 8.627 

Oxide of iron and alumina, 1.700 6.930 

Sulphur 133 .112 

Phosphorus, 027 .017 

Insoluble residue, 5.430 27.230 

•S. 0. Haslett's quarry, two miles south of Jacksonville. 

2 G. Livelihood's quarry, three miles east south-east from Klairsville, Indiana county. 

l ANALYSIS OF UPPER FREEPORT LIMESTONE. 

k (3) 

Carbonate of lime 94.643 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.144 

Oxide of iron and alumina, 2.720 

Sulphur 028 

Phosphorus 015 

Insoluble residue 990 

s Kier Brothers' quarry, at Salina, Westmoreland county. 



90 

JOHNSTOWN CEMENT BED. 

ANALYSES OP JOHNSTOWN CEMENT BED. 

(1) 

Carbonate of lime, 78.768 

Carbonate of magnesia 2 .421 

Oxide of iron and alumina, 3.540 

Carbonate of iron, 

Alumina , 

Sulphur, 097 

Phosphorus, 018 

Insoluble residue, 13.790 

'Tyhawk's quarry, one mile oast from Black Lick station, Indiana county. From main lunch of 
deposit. 

(2) (3) 

Carbonate of lime, 63.969 88.139 

Carbonate of magnesia, 4.244 1.854 

Carbonate of iron, ) 1.798 

Alumina k J 4.393 .340 

Sulphur, 385 .387 

Phosphorus, 142 .023 

Insoluble residue, 24.780 5.640 

■Zimmi Tinan's rjuarry, three and a half miles southeast of Somerset, Somerset comity. 
s \Vilt's quarry, near Stoystown, Somerset county. 

VANPORT LIMESTONE. 

This bed, formerly known as the Ferriferous, is without doubt Hit' 
niosl widespread and available limestone for Portland-cement manu- 
facture in Western Pennsylvania, outcropping over large parts of 
Jefferson, Clarion, Armstrong, Northern Butler, and Lawrence coun- 
ties, and appearing occasionally in Northern Indiana, Beaver and 
Venango counties, but dying out along a line drawn in a northeast- 
southwest direction through the middle of Indiana and the western 
part of Clearfield counties. Although not always present, even in 
those counties where it is best developed, it is the most persistent 
stratum known in Western Pennsylvania, and therefore a good key 
to the geologic structure. In stratigiaphic position it occurs below 
the Lower Kittanning coal and Are clay, from which it is separated 
by sandstone or sandy shales. It is often overlain by a thin bed of 
limonite, known as the "buln stone ore bed." (See under "Iron Ore.") 

ANALYSES OP VANPORT LIMESTONE FROM ARMSTRONG COUNTY, PA. 



Insoluble residue 

Calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ), .. 
Magnesium carbonate (MgCO:i), 

Alumina (AI2O3) 

Ferric oxide Fe20 3 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus 

Thickness in feet 



?,. 120 

93.246 

1.740 

1.067 



.032 
8 to 10 



O.790 

90.007 

1.49S 

1.462 



.034 
9 



2.100 

94.186 

1.4S3 

2.0S9 



0.370 
90.785 
1.278 
1.000 



.060 



■Cowanshannoek Creek, west edge of Cowanshannoek Township. Sec. Geol. Surv. of Penna., Vol. 
IIS, p. 97; analysis by A. S. McCreath. 

■Mahoning Creek, at Stewardson Furnace. Op. cit., p. 1«9; analysis by A. S. McCreatb. 

"Crooked Creek, between Mr. George's mid the pottery. Op. cit.. p. 64; analysis by A. S. Mc- 
Creath 

•Pine Creek Furnace, miles northeast of Kittanning. See. Geol. Surv. of Penna.. vol, MM, p. 



PLATE IX. 





MAP OF A PORTION OF THE BEAVER VALLEY AND VICINITY 

SHOWING OUTCROP OP VAN PORT LIMESTONE 



BY F O XLAPH 

1904 
Scale 



From a map published by tlw Second 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania IB93 



PLATE X. 







79°zo' 



MAP OF A PORTION OF THE ALLEGHENY VALLEY" AND VICINITY 

SHOWING OUTCROP OF VANPORT LIMESTONE 



BY F. G.CIjAPP 

1904 

Scale 



From a map published by the Second 
Geological Survey of Pennsylva.nia,l893 



91 

The portion of The Great Valley which includes the Lehigh cement 
section contains the following limestones in ascending order.* 

The Allentown Limestone. 
The Coplay Limestone. 
The Nazareth Limestone. 
The Lehigh Limestone. 

The Allentown and Coplay limestones are dolomitic while the Naza- 
reth limestone is almost uniformly a calcite, the amount of magnesium 
carbonate being usually less than 3 or 4 percentum, although it at 
times runs as high as 22 percentum. The Lehigh Limestone or "Ce- 
ment Rock" is the upper portion of the Nazareth limestone and is 
typically a series of thin beds of a high shaly or argillaceous nature. 
"The rock is at times grey in color and shaly, breaking into small flat, 
irregular or pencil shaped fragments, — at times dark drab almost 
black and distinctly slaty in character".** This is generally used and 
known in the Lehigh district as the "cement rock." The maximum 
thickness is scarcely over 200 fee't. 

In the older State and other reports on the geology of this region, 
these limestones were referred in part to the Trenton and in part to 
the Hudson River formations and the exact geological position of 
these beds is by no means fully established as yet. That they are not 
all of one age or series is, however, quite clear. 

The Lehigh limestone, or cement rock, has been widely described 
and known as Trenton and in many reports both of the State of 
Pennsylvania and of the U. S. Government has been so called. 

The Martinsburg Shale which succeeds this limestone has long been 
known as Utica or Hudson River. The details of discussion of these 
changes of names can not be given here. 

E. C. Eckelf in his accounts of the Lehigh district, makes the fol- 
lowing classification with analyses: 

"The 'Lehigh district' of the engineer and cement manufacturer 
has been so greatly extended in recent years that the name is now 
hardly applicable. Originally it included merely one small area 
about 4 miles square, located along Lehigh River partly in Lehigh 
county, and partly in Northampton county, and containing the vil- 
lages of Egypt, Coplay, Northampton, Whitehall, and Siegfried. The 
cement plants which were located here at an early date secured con- 
trol of most of the cement-rock deposits in the vicinity, and plants 
of later establishment have therefore been forced to locate farther 
and farther away from the original center of the district. At pres- 
ent the district includes parts of Berks, Lehigh, and Northampton 
counties, Pennsylvania, and Warren county, New Jersey, reaching 
from near Reading, Pa., at the southwest, to a few miles north of 

Topographic and Geologic Survey Commission of Pa., Report 5, pp. 24 seq., Harrisburg, 1911, 

**op. cited p. 30. 

tEdwin 0. Eckell. Bulletins 225, 243, 260 and others. TJ. S, Geol. Sudvey, Washington. 



92 

Stewartsville, N. J., at tlie northeast. It forms, therefore, an ob- 
long area about 25 miles in length from southwest to northeast, ami 
about 4 miles in width." 

"Within the 'Lehigh district,' as above defined, three geologic for- 
mations occur, all of which must be considered in attempting to ac- 
count for the distribution of the cement materials used here. These 
three formations aie, in descending order, the (1) Hudson shales, 
slates, and sandstones; (2) Trenton limestone (Lehigh cement rock); 
(3) Kittatinny limestone (magnesian). As all these rocks dip, in 
general, north west ward, the Hudson rocks occupy the northwestern 
portion of the district, while the cemen<t rock and magnesian lime- 
stone outcrop in succession farther southeast." 

"The composition of the typical shales and slates of the Hudson for- 
mation is well shown by the following analyses: 

ANALYSES OF HUDSON SHALE AND SLATE IN PENNSYLVANIA AND 

NEW JERSEY. 



Silica (SfOt) 

Alumina (AI-O3) 

Iron oxide (F«iO a ) 

Lime (OaO) 

Lime carbonate (GaOO»), 

Magnesia (MgO), 

Magnesium carbonate (MgCOs), 

Alkalies 

Cart 1111 dioxide (CO a ) 

Water (H,0) 



6S.62 
4.20 



3.76 
3.73 



2. 


3. 


4. 


% 

cs.oo 

11.40 
5.40 
2.68 

1.6] 


% 

56.60 
21.00 
5.65 
3.42 

2.30 

.50 
2.20 
3.00 


% 

a76.22 
1 13.05 

2.67 

.93 


.11 




2.30 




2.70 









a Insoluble. 

1. Bast Bangor. Pa., Twentieth Ann. Kept. t". S. Geol. Survey, pt. 6. p. 486. 
i'. 1 mile northwest Colemnnville, N. J. Geology New Jersey, 1S6S, p. 136. 
3. Delaware Water Gap, N. J. Geology New Jersey, 1S6N, p. 136. 
1. Lafayette, N. J. Rept. New Jersey State (ML for 1900, p. 74. 

"Combination of materials- used. — Throughout most of the Lehigh 
district the practice is to mix with a relatively large amount of the 
"cement jock" or argillaceous limestone a small amount of pine 
limestone, in order to bring the lime carbonate content up to the 
percentage proper for a Portland- cement mixture. 

"In the plants located near Bath and Nazareth, however, the prac- 
tice has been slightly different. In this particular area the cement- 
rock quarries usually show rock carrying from 70 to 80 per cent, of 
lime carbonate. The mills in this vicinity, therefore, require prac- 
tically no pure limestone, as the quarry rock itself is sufficiently 
high in lime carbonate for the purpose. Indeed, it is at times neces 
sary for these plants to add clay or slate, instead of limestone, to 
their cement rock, in order to reduce its content of lime carbonate to 
the required figure. In general, however, it may be said that the 
Lehigh practice is to mix a low-carbonate cement rock with a rela- 
tively small amount of pure limestone." 



93 



ANALYSES OF LEHIGH DISTRICT CEMENTS. 



Silica (SiOa) 

Alumina (AI..O3), 

Iron oxide (Fe->0 3 ), 

I.i (CaO) 

Miii-'iicxin (MffO), 

Alkalies (K-O. Na.O), 
Sulphur trlnzlae isn 1, 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


.7. 


8. 


9. 


% 


% 


■>■■ 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


21.30 


21.96 


21.1 


20.87 


19.06 


21.63 


22.68 


21.0S 


24.23 


7.65 


8.29 


8.0 


7.60 


7.17 


8.09 


6.71 


7. si; 


LSI) 


:'.sr, 


2.67 


2.5 


2.66 


2.29 


2.93 


2.31! 


2.48 


1.86 


GO. 95 


60.52 


65.6 


63.04 


61.23 


63.10 


62.30 


63.68 


63.01 


2.95 


3.43 


2.4 


2.80 


2. S3 


2.00 


3.41 


2.62 


3.20 


1.15 


ml 


(a) 


(a) 


1.41 


<a> 


(a) 


(a) 


(a) 


LSI 


1.19 


(a) 


1.. 11 


1.34 


1.02 


l-.w 


1.25 


1.20 



% 

24.48 
4.51 
2.68 

61.33 
2.59 
(«) 
1.41 



:i Noi ili'liTinhli-il. 

The following observations and analyses of both the Nazareth lime- 
stone and Lehigh limestone (cement, rock) are quoted from The 
Topographic and Geol. Sur. Commission of Penna., Rep. 5, 1911: 

ANAYLSES OF THE NAZARETH LIMESTONE. 



D 

z 




CaCOj 


MgOO, 


No. 


CaCO, 


MgOO, 


1, 

ft 

%'. 

1. 

.. 

6. 

7. 

8, 

9. 
10. 
II. 
12. 
18, 
II. 
IB, 




S9.r,o 

92.20 
94.00 
88.20 
87.80 
93.40 
91.00 
70.60 
94.40 
72.20 
66.50 
90. SO 
92.00 
96.60 
96.16 


1 .91 
2.66 

2.27 
1.92 
1 .51 
l M 
8.20 

11J.9-I 
1.92 
•11.18 
J18.73 
2.43 
2.86 
1.51 
1.92 


16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
83 
:: 

24 
2S 
26 
27 
28 
29 


92.90 
88.90 
91.30 
92.10 
84.80 
90.60 
65.80 
94.00 
90.50 
92.70 
51.30 
84.70 
70.90 
88.90 


2.10 




2.27 




1.92 




1.92 




1.52 




2.27 




•19.49 




1.76 




2.66 




2.66 




T22.09 
2.60 






1.92 




2.10 











•4 feet, thick. 
H feet thick. 
11 foot G inches thick. 

"Each of these analyses is of a separate bed. The samples were 
taken from three adjacent quarries located about two miles west 
of Catasauqua. The beds from which the samples were taken aggre- 
gate about 75 feet in thickness, and the samples were taken as num- 
bered from below up. Only the percentages of carbonate of lime 
and magnesia are given, the remainder being chiefly silica and 
alumina with some iron." 

"The variation in chemical composition of the beds which go to 
make up the Lehigh TAmeatone, is well illustrated in the thirty 
analyses given below, which were made from as many samples taken 
ten feet a pari in sinking three drill holes, each to a depth of one hun- 
dred feet. These drill holes were made to test the character of the 
cemenl rock which lies immediately above the beds of Nazareth 
limestone, 29 analyses of which are given above." 



94 



ANALYSES OF THE LEHIGH LIMESTONE (CEMENT ROCK). 
Drill Hole No. 1. 



Sill., . .. 
Al. FCjOj, 
CaCOa, .. 



10 


20 


30 


40 


60 


60 


70 


80 


90 


IVrl. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


reet. 


feet. 


iwt. 


feet. 


feet. 




19.76 


22.30 


21.84 


13.30 


6. OS 


12.40 


20.90 


12.82 


6. 88 


7. -IS 


7.60 


7.02 


2. IK 


l.so 


2.S8 


4.50 


3.26 


60.76 


66.61 


63.17 


64.08 


CS.41 


W.L'S 


79.06 


67.51 


74.73 


3.06 


3.36 


4.18 


4.12 


11.11 


4.06 


4.30 


5.28 


7.90 



100 
feet. 



15.54 

s.riti 

70.76 
8.54 



Drill Hole No. 2. 



Sin . . . 
Al, PeaO 
OaCO . . 
MgCO„ . 



10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


20.16 


17.12 


15. 4S 


15.44 


15.60 


15.14 


23.06 


19.42 


11.58 


6.70 


S.94 


7.74 


8.66 


7.92 


7.74 


8.48 


7.32 


4.40 


54. ,. 


6".. 79 


69.49 


6S.32 


t».::i 




61.55 


60.03 


7ii.:;r, 


4.00 


4.70 


4.38 


4.36 


4.29 


4.65 


1.66 


4.23 


6.42 



100 
feet. 



18.16 
5.76 
50.93 
14.32 



Drill Hole No. 3. 



eiOs, ... 

Al. FeiOi 
CaCO,, . 
MgOOi, 



10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 


19.00 


20.40 


21.90 


19.78 


18.42 


15.96 


23.90 


18.32 


15.14 


•1.31 


8.52 


8.64 


7.82 


s,m; 


7.66 


8.26 


7.48 


7.30 


64.89 


64.62 


60.29 


6.7.3 1 


61.62 


68.87 


58.75 


67.33 


70.5S 


4.14 


4.24 


4.11 


4.05 


4.47 


4.30 


3.98 


4.39 


4.29 



100 
feet. 



13.10 
4.44 
72.29 



NOTE ON THE LIMESTONES OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

Readers of this report may be somewhat disappointed at not find- 
in *•• tables of correlation of the different limestone sections of the 
State, and also at not finding fuller details in regard to the dif- 
ferent beds so that it would be possible, for example, to ascertain 
the exact equivalents, if any, between the limestones of the Lehigh 
seel ion and those of the great central mountain portion of the State. 
II' any one does feel this disappointment it is only fair to state that 
while more detailed information could be given in regard to certain 
individual places where limestone is found that it is not possible 
In make a comparative report connecting these details with the pos- 
sible details of other localities for the simple reason that the data 
upon which to base such comparisons are not in existence. Chemi- 
cal analyses are not in themselves sufficient since the variations in 
any one limestone are often very great. 



95 

The Second Geological Survey of the State, which >vent out of 
ex isi a nee some years since, based their reports on the Pennsylvania 
limestone on the data (hen on hand. But since then geological 
knowledge has broadened greatly and there has been no systeinalic 
study made of our State by which the various forma lions, limestone 
and otherwise, may be properly correlated. 

The limestones called in general Trenton by the Second Survey 
are in many cases not only not Trenton, even in (he old use of that 
word, but they are frequently representative of several quite different 
stages of limestone deposition. 

The limestones at Milroy in Mifflin county, for example, undoubt- 
edly represent, even under the older classification, beds of greatly 
diverse character both chemically and physically, and as to age as 
well. So that in making a comparison between the lirtestones of 
Ibis locality and those of Lancaster or Chester county there is 
actually no certain basis on which to rest. It will not be possible to 
have this knowledge until a thoroughly scientilic study, based upon 
modern geological knowledge, is made of all the limestones of the 
State. 

This requires time; but it is very much to be desired that the Com- 
monwealth may be brought into a liberal policy towards our State 
Survey s<» that this very important work may be started and carried 
eventually to completion. 

MAGNESIAN MINERALS. 



The chief magnesia minerals are: 

Magnetite .- MgCO,; MgO = 47.6 per cent. 

I •.incite, Mg (OH) 2 ; MgO = 69.0 

Dolomite, a double carbonate of lime and magnesia (CaMg) (C0 3 ) 
in which the percentage of MgO runs from 21.7 in normal dolomite, 
to as little as 5 per cent, in magnesian limestone. In other words 
"dolomite" is a term applied to magnesian limestones. 

These minerals are all sources of magnesia (MgO) used in the arts 
and in trade. 

In addition there are other minerals such as serpentine, meer- 
schaum, mica, and garnet which, while magnesian, are not commer- 
cial sources of magnesia. 

MAGNESITE. 

This is a rare mineral in Ibis Slate, most of the occurrences being 
in (he serpentine zones and too small in quantity to be of more than 
passing interest. Some dolomite is mined and calcined and used for 
the same purposes as magnesite. 



96 

Magnesite has been found in the following places: Wood's mine, 
Low's mine and adjacent spots in the chrome district, Lancaster 
county; in Chester county at Brinton's quarry, in East Bradford 
ami Goshen townships; in some abundance at some old quarries near 
Goat Hill, West Nottingham township; in Lehigh county near Easton 
and other localities; in Delaware county near Radnor; in Berks 
county at Spangsville. 

BRUCITE. 

This beautiful mineral has been found in the State chiefly at Texas, 
Lancaster county. It has a fine waxy lustre, and is usually of a trans- 
lucent green color, but is at times pink. It is found in plates, scales 
and in large flat crystals which scale apart like soapstone. 

The following analyses have been published (Genth's Rep. B.) : 

A B 

Magnesia , 68.87 66.30 

Ferrous oxide, 0.50 

Manganous oxide 0.80 trace 

Water, 30.33 31.93 

Carbonic acid, • 1.27 

100.00 100.00 

"A" is from Wood's Mine. 
"■B" is from Low's Mine. 

Dolomite occurs in small yellowish or pearly crystals in some of 
the limestones of the York-Lancaster-Dauphin section and doubtless 
in other places in the limestones. (For dolomite limestones see un- 
der limestones). 

USES OF MAGNESIA MINERALS. 

These are used for making fire-proofing material, non-conductors 
around steam pipes, for refractory brick, for linings in basic steel 
furnaces; small amounts are used for medical purposes as epsom 
salts, the sulphate. 

MANGANESE MINERALS. 

"The principal manganese minerals forming ores of manganese are 
the following: 

PRINCIPAL MANGANESE MINERALS. 



Mineral. 


Composition. 


Percentage 
of man- 
ganese. 




MnOj , 


63.2 




Mu0 2 .n HO 




MnO-.dVInKniOO.n H»0 






Hydrous impure mixture ol' manganese oxides, .. 










3Mn-.OvMnO.SiO- 






(FeZnMn)O. (FeMn) .O n 




Rhodonite (manganese pyroxene) , a 
Tephroite (mangnnese olivine) , a .. 
Sprssnrtite (manganese garnet), .. 


MnO.ro.. 








:;MnO.Al.<>,.3SiO.. 


54.3 







aNot reported from Pennsylvania, or doubtful. 



97 

"These minerals occurring separately or combined among them- 
selves or with other minerals form four different classes of materials 
from which manganese is obtained commercially: (1) Manganese 
ares; (2) manganiferous iron ores; (3) manganiferous silver ores; 
and (4) manganiferous zinc residuum. Manganese ores consist of 
various mixtures of manganese oxides, sometimes containiug admix- 
tures of manganese carbonate." 

"The principal use of manganese ores is in the manufacture of iron- 
innnganese alloys such as spiegeleisen, ferromanganese, silverspiegel, 
and silicomanganese. The first I wo of these contain principally iron 
and manganese; the last two contain considerable silicon in addition. 
Ferromanganese and spiegeleisen are used in steel manufacture as 
reducers of iron oxide during the final melting, as lecarburizers, and 
in Hie manufacture of special steels alone or in combination with 
chromium, nickel, tungsten, and other steel-hardening metals. Man 
ganese is also used in the formation of alloys with copper, aluminum, 
zinc, tin, and other metals." (TJ. S. Geol. Survey). 

Manganese ores or manganiferous iron ores are used to a slight ex- 
Ion! as fluxes in the reduction of silver, lead, and copper ores. 

Maganese peroxide is used as an oxidizer in the manufacture of 
chlorine, biomine, and oxygen, and of potassium ferromauganate ; as 
a drier in paints and varnishes; as a decolorizev of glass; and in the 
manufacture of the dry and the Leclanche ceils. As a coloring ma- 
terial, manganese is used in coloring glass, bricks, and pottery. Sev- 
eral manganese salts are used in drying cloth and as paints. 



LOCALITIES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

In a general way manganese minerals are found in the surface 
iron ore deposits such as Umonlte ore banks in the counties of Le- 
high, Berks and Northampton, Bucks, Adams, Cumberland, Lancas- 
ter York, Blair, Huntingdon, Centre and others. Manganese enters 
into the composition of umber and sienna and has been reported as 
such in the Lehigh Taint Ore district, many of the old ore banks of 
the Lehigh-Northampton -Berks section have yielded psilomelane, 
pyrolusite or other mangansee minerals. 

In the collections of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia, a:e rounded nodular lumps as large as croquet balls of "psilo- 
melane from Morgantown, Berks county." 

Calcite containing 13.28 per cent, of carbonate of manganese 
(Rhodochrosite) is mentioned in Dr. Genth's Beport B, as occurring 
at De Turk's, four miles east of Reading; Rhodochrosite is also re- 
ported by the same authority from Cornwall, Lebanon county. 
."Wad," Bog Manganese is also of frequent occurrence. 

Pyrolusite. This mineral is reported at Edge Hill and Spring Mill, 
Montgomery county; Zach. Cist. fAm. Journal of Science, IV, 

7 



98 

39, (1822), reports it "from the headwaters of Bear Creek, Lehigh and 
Tobyhaimah, Broad Mountain." 

Analyses are not numerous as pure pyrolusite is not a frequent 
mineral in this State. 

Psilomclane. This is the most abundant manganese mineral in 
Pennsylvania occurring as already stated in the "iron ore bank" dis- 
tricts. It has also been noted "in the wash on the slopes of South 
Mountain a few miles northeast" of the Mercersburg-Chambersburg 
quadrangle. U. S. Geo. Survey, Folio 170, p. 130, 1910. 

The folowing analysis from the mines at Ironton, Lehigh county, 
may be taken as typical : x 

Manganese dioxide, . .MnO,, 77.96 

Manganese protoxide, MnO, 4.32 

Sesquioxide of iron, . Fe 2 0., 3.66 

Alumina, A1 2 3 , 7.11 

Oxide of cobalt, 39 

Oxide of nickel, trace 

Oxide of copper, trace 

Barium oxide, BaO 0.152 

Lime, OaO 0.770 

Magnesia, MgO 0.236 

Soda Na-O 368 

Potash, K 2 3.042 

Sulphuric acid, trace 

Phosphoric acid, 0.149 = .063 per cent. Phos. 

Water, 3.980 

Silicic acid, 4.845 



100.583 



52.631 per cent, metallic manganese 
2.562 per cent, metallic iron 

Nearly all analyses show cobalt, nickel and barium; these ele- 
ments are of common occurence in the mineral psilomelane wherever 
found. The nickel content is rarely high enough to be workable. 

While many of those old iron ore banks have been abandoned it is 
possible that reworking them for manganese-irons would bear inves- 
tigation. 

MARBLE. 

Marble is, in the proper use of the term, a crystalline form of lime 
rock, such as calcite or dolomite (see limestone) and is usually cap- 
able of taking a high polish and of being worked easily into a great 
variety of carved forms. Trade use has however applied the term 
"marble" to a great many other rocks of an ornamental character, 
such as black or mottled limestones, serpentine and soapstone, lime 
depositions known as travertine or tufa; the term has even been ap- 
plied to rocks such as granite and coarse grained trap (gabbro) 
which are far removed from true marble in chemical and physical 
character. It is" not practicable to give here all the trade varieties 
of marble, or of materials sold as such. Marble has been worked 
rather largely in the past in Pennsylvania, especially in the older 

'A. S. McCreath, Sec. Geol. Surv. of Penna., Rep. M2, p. 213. 



99 

and more crystalline limestone formations of the Chester Valley and 
the highly altered limestones of the Great Valley from Lehigh county 
to the Susquehanna Elver. The limestones of the Great Valley have 
in some places, as in Lehigh, Northampton, Lancaster, Lebanon, York 
and other counties, altered, under geological processes, partly into 
serpentine and hence come under the class of marbles known as verde- 
antique. A very attractive variety of this is produced in Lehigh 
county and put on the market as "verdolite." 

At other localities these older limestones have altered into bands 
of almost pure white marble which, however, are seldom of sufficient 
thickness to be quarried in large bloefcs. Inasmuch as there is a con- 
stant demand for ornamental marbles in smaller blocks for interior 
decoration of various sorts and for inlay work it is quite possible 
that a market might be found for some of these Pennsylvania marbles 
not now exploited. Serpentine as such is not marble and will be 
further described under another head. 

The marble quarries of the Chester Valley, both east and west of 
the Schulykill, were opened along the vertical beds of the South Val- 
ley Hill and supplied the building demands of Philadelphia until 
the marble from Vermont came into the market. Part of Girard Col- 
lege is built of Pennsylvania marble and part of Vermont marble; 
the old Stephen Girard banking house in Third street, Philadelphia, 
is also built of local marble. (See Final Summary Report, Sec. Geol. 
Survey of Penna., Vol. 1, page 467). 

The Cambrian limestone was formerly worked at Marble Hall near 
Philadelphia and supplied the stone for the City Hall as well as for 
other buildings in Philadelphia. It is a blue-white stone. 

Black Marble has been obtained from the Ordovician (Trenton) of 
Lycoming county; "pink marble irregularly veined with green," oc- 
curs in the Beekmantown (Ordovician) linestone in the vicinity of 
Chambersburg, as does also a wavy, concentric "bulls-eye" marble. 
(U. S. Geol. Survey, Folio 170, 1910). 

In the older settlements of Eastern Pennsylvania are many old 
houses built of the local marbles or crystalline limestone taken from 
the Cambrian; these houses built before the Revolution are still in 
admirable state of preservation, showing the great durability of these 
limestones. 

Present marble workings in the State are located at West Grove, 
Chester county; near Bridgeport and King of Prussia, Montgomery 
county; at Avondale, Delaware county, where a marble somewhat 
similar to that quarried at Cockeysville, Md., is worked. This stone 
has had a considerable sale and is put out in three or more varieties. 



100 

MARL. 

Marl is an earth formed in large part of calcium carbonate, and 
is usually derived from the disintegrations of shells, or of lime secre- 
tions due to plants or other organic matter. Marl is used mostly 
as a fertilizing earth in soils low in lime. A bed of marl "estimated 
to contain eighty acres," was formerly worked at Harmonsburg, Craw- 
ford county; it was supposed to be of glacial origin and formed in a 
swamp or shallow lake. A bed of peat covered the marl to a thickness 
of two or three feet. The composition of this marl is shown by (lie fol- 
lowing analysis taken from Report MM, Sec. fleol. Survey of Pa., 
page 3G5, from whi«h report the above data are taken. 

Lime, .* 49 . 129 

Magnesia 00.839 

Bisulphide of Iron 00.429 

Sisquioxide of Iron, 0.170 

Alumina, 00.020 

I V .tash 00. 116 

Sulphuric acid 0.222 

Phosphoric acid, 0.023 

Carbonic add, 39.:«> 

Water 2,190 

< tarbonaeeous matter 6.510 

Silica, 1.052 

Total , 100 .056 

.Mail has not been reported as worked in other places in the State 
nor is it probable that large deposits will be found, as the large de- 
posits in New Jersey are from geological formations which are very 
slightly present in tliis State; any occurrences in Pennsylvania will 
most probably be found as post-glacial deposits. 

MICA. 

This term covers a large group of minerals which are often in 
practice divided into two groups known as the "elastic micas" and 
the "brittle micas." The brittle ones are generally of a vivid green 
or brown and have little commercial value. They are known among 
mineralogists as the CUntonite and Chlorite micas. They have a soft, 
soapy, and when moist, a very slippery feel and may be mistaken for 
soapstone, with which indeed they are often associated. Some 
chlorite or green mica rocks carry also chrome iron and magnetic iron. 
When associated with chromite these micas often show a pale laven- 
dar or purplish tint, due to oxide of chromium. Tn fact this lavendar 
colored mica is a very good indicator for the presence of chrome iron. 
!t is known as "kaemmererite." 

The elastic micas are the ones which are of chief commercial value. 

All micas possess to a very marked degree the property of splitting 
into sheets or layers of extreme thinness. In some these layers 
are elastic and after bending fly back to their flat shape. The green 
micas are brittle and when bent break. The elastic micas are gen- 



101 

erally found in rocks of the granite type or in veins known as peg- 
matite (a coarse granite) ; the mica rocks include! also those known 
as schists in which, however, the mica is in particles too small for 
use in sheet form. 

In Pennsylvania the mica rocks are confined exclusively to the 
southeastern section; there are none west of the South Mountain ex- 
cept as occasional glacial bowlders or pebbles may show fragments. 
Such occurrences are accidental and superficial and possessed of no 
permanency. 

"The commercial demand lias practically been supplied by two 
varieties, muscovite and phlogopite; but a small quantity of biotite 
has been used. 

(Phlogopite is a Rare Mineral in Pennsylvania.) 

"Muscovite, called "white mica," is a silicate of aluminum and 
potassium containing water; plogopite, called "amber mica," is a 
silicate of magnesium, aluminum, and potassium; biotite is a silicate 
of magnesium, iron, aluminum, and potassium (It is known as "black 
mica.") Phlogopite and biotite may he placed at opposite ends of 
a chemical series and may grade, into each other by variations in the 
percentage of iron present. In thin sheets mnscovite is nearly color- 
less, phlogopite generally yellow or brownish, and biotite dark brown 
to black, or brownish g;een. In sheets of one-sixteenth of an inch or 
more in thickness muscovite may lie colorless, while, gray, yellow in- 
clining to amber, red, brown, or green, phlogopite may be yellow, 
brown, or black, and sometimes coppery; and biotite is black. Mus- 
covite of n 1 eddish color is often called "rum" and "ruby" mica. The 
luster of muscovite is brilliant and glimmering on fresh surfaces, and 
that of phlogopite is less brilliant and more silvery or pearly. (These 
thin sheets are all very elastic). 



USES. 

"Mica lias a wide commercial application, both in the form of sheet 
mica and of ground mica. The most extensive use of sheet mica is 
in the manufacture of electrical apparatus, but a considerable quan- 
tity is sti'l used in the glazing trade, for stoves, for gas-lamp chim- 
neys, for lamp shades, etc. The demand for mica for glazing is small 
and only the best quality and die larger sheets are thus used. Both 
large and small sheet mica is used in the electrical industry. 'Miea- 
nite,' or built-up mica board, for the manufacture of which small-sheet 
mica can be used, is substituted for la>"ge-sheet mica in much electri- 
cal work. Mica serves as a perfect insulator in various parts of dyna- 
mos, motors, induction apparatus, switchboards, lamp sockets, and 
nearly every variety of electrical appliance. 

"The domestic or muscovite mica is satisfactory for all insulation 
except for commutators of direct-current motors and dynamos built 
up of bars of copper and strips of mica. For this purpose no mica 



102 

is as satisfactory as the phlogopite or 'amber mica.' This mica is 
of about the same hardness as the copper of the commutator segments 
and therefore wears down evenly without causing the machine to 
spark." 

"A large quantity of scrap mica — small sheets and the waste from 
the manufacture of sheet mica — is ground for different uses. Among 
these are the decoration of wall paper and the manufacture of lubri- 
cants, fancy paints, and molded mica for electrical insulation. 
Ground mica applied to wall papers gives them a silvery luster. When 
mixed with grease or oils finely ground mica forms an excellent 
lubricant for axles and other bearings. Mixed with shellac or special 
compositions ground mica is molded into desired forms and is used 
in insulators for trolley wires. Ground mica for electrical insulation 
must be fiee from metallic minerals. Mica used for lubrication 
should be free from gritty matter. For wall papers and brocade 
paints a ground mica with a high luster is required, and such luster is 
best obtained by using a clean light-colored mica and grinding it." 
— (U. S. Geological Survey). 

In chemical composition the micas are of very complex character. 
They are made up of silicic acid combinations of potash, soda, lithia, 
magnesia, iron and water with alumina. The chief ones found in this 
State are 

Muscovite, — potash mica. 
Biotite, — magnesium — iron mica. 
Phlogopite, — magnesium mica. 

Chorites, green micas, and some alteration products of mica known 
as Vermiculites, upon heating swell apart and expand very 
much in bulk. Damourite and sericite are names applied to minute 
crystal scales of mica, mostly muscovite, occurring in quartz schists, 
slates, mica schists and feldspar rocks. These are often very silky 
in lustre and appearance and being frequently smooth and slippery 
are mistaken for soapstone. Sericite is sometimes found in mineral 
paints. 



MUSCOVITE. 

In Delaware county at the quarries near the city of Chester and 
at Leiperville; at Dutton's Mills, in Concord, Middletown and other 
townships, Muscovite has been found in good crystals. 

The chief locality in the State for mica has been in Pennsburg 
township, Chester county, where some very beautiful masses have been 
found as large as 12 to 14 inches in diameter (Genth, Report 
B.). In the same county at Unionville and West Chester are other 
localities. Muscovite occurs also in the crystalline schists and slates 
as far west as the Susquehanna. 



103 

In and about Philadelphia, in Fairmount Park, Falls of the Schuyl- 
kill, in quarries in West Philadelphia, in Germantown, Chestnut Hill, 
Frankford, and in fact in practically the entire range of the city, 
micas such as muscovite and biotite have beeri found widespread, 
though not in sheet form for commercial use. Most of the quarries 
mentioned in the older State survey reports are built over or long 
since abandoned. The Gneiss quarries at 69th Street and Arch and 
Race Strets, Philadelphia, often show fair sized scales or crystals 
of biotite. 

Phlogopite has been stated to be rare in the State. It has been 
found at the Van Arsdales, Bucks county, quarry in crystalline lime- 
stone with graphite, at lime quarries in East Marlborough and New 
Garden townships, Chester county, and at the old mines at Gap, 
Lancaster county. 

Biotite has been reported at many of the localities for muscovite; 
it is found in association with molybdenite at Frankford, Philadel- 
phia, at the iron mines at Rittenhousc Gap, Berks county, and in gen- 
eral in the feldspar and muscovite districts. 

In prospecting for mica it is well to bear in mind that the large 
sheets are found in veins of giant granite or pegmatites, while some 
commercial mica is found in small plates and has a market value it 
is usually found in connection with the larger sheets and is not gen- 
erally of itself of workable value. 

MINERAL PAINTS; PAINT ORES. 

The term "Mineral Paints" includes a considerable variety of ma- 
terials used for making pigments, paint fillers, mortar colors, brick 
colors, linoleum colors, and a number of other paint purposes. Some 
of these mineral paints may be used directly after grinding and mix- 
ing in oil or water, others need to be roasted, ground, sifted and 
treated through a series of processes, depending upon the original 
character of the raw substance and the nature of the colors desired 
in the finished product. They are of great importance in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

"Paint ore" as the term is generally used, is the natural raw prod- 
uct such as shale, the mineral siderite (iron carbonate), or other sub- 
stance, generally needing roasting and grinding to produce the 
product. 

Natural compounds of iron and manganese supply the basis of most 
of the substances used as mineral paints so far as the color is con- 
cerned, though in addition to these barite, or "heavy spar," is used for 
white pigments; black shales, graphite or graphite shales or slates for 
black or slate colors. 

Other materials such as clays, whiting, asbestos, soapstone, some 
times used as "extenders," do not properly come under the head of 



104 

mineral paint or paint ores, as they impart no color though they may 
be useful as fireproofing additions to the paint. (J. H. 1'ratt, "Min- 
eral Paints," in Mineral Resources of U. S., 1904). 

Mineral paints may for the purposes of comparison be classified as 
follows, though the divisions in practice overlap: 

(1) METALLIC PAINTS. 

Hematite (reds) 

Limonite (browns) 

Ochre 1 

Umber [in part, when used raw 

Sii'nnaJ 

Siderite (after roasting) 

Cinnabar (yermillion) ; does not occur in Penna. 

(2) PAINT ORES. 

Ochre ] 

Umbertwhen not pure, and needing roasting, grinding, and sifting 

SiennaJ 

Siderite (carbonate of iron) 

Paint .sliilcs (including limestones and slates) 

(3) MISCELLANEOUS PAINT MATERIALS (fillers and extenders). 

Barite (Barium sulphate), Mineral white 

Culm (coal refuse) 

Graphite 

Mica (soapstone) 

Oyster-shell lime 

Whiting (chalk, marble); or gypsum 

(i) BY-PRODUCT PAINTS. 
Blast furnace dust 

Bine billy (roasted pyrite) 

(5) CHEMICALLY PREPARED PAINT. 
Ziue White 
Venetian Red 
Indian Red 
White lead, etc. 



not considered in this report 



Metallic paints comprise red and brown pigments made directly 
by simple grinding from certain ores of iron, manganese or other 
metals. In the case of natural carbonate of iron, known as siderite, 
a preliminary roasting is required. The minerals used as metallic 
paints are hematite, red oxide of iron, Fe 2 3 ; limonite, a hydra ted 
oxide of iron yielding when ground brown tints. These two minerals, 
more particularly limonite, together with turgite and goethite 
('hydra ted iron oxide) when occuring in a naturally powdered form 
are often spoken of as ochre. Umber and sienna are sometimes used 
in the raw state as metallic paints, though generally classed under 
paint ores. 

In addition to the above certain metallic paints are made from by- 
products in metallurgical or chemical manufacture, such as Indian 
red made ," om roasted coppe as obtained as a by-product from "pick- 
ling" iion or steel wire, and "blue billy" a purplish oxide of iron 
formed as a by-product in the manufacture of sulphuric acid from 
iron pyrites. These are ground and used as pigments. 



105 



HISTORICAL NOTE. 

Others and other paint ores have been worked in Pennsylvania 
since Colonial times though references to early uses are not frequent. 
Reference is made to ocher and paint ores in a book which is now 
very rare and little known, published in 1787. This is the "Beytrage 
zur Mineralogischen Kenntniss des ostlichen Theils von Nord 
Amerika und seiner GebUrge. Erlangen 1787," by Dr. Johann David 
Schopf, who in 1783 travelled through the eastern part of North 
America making particular reference to the occurrence of mineral 
wealth. The following is a translation of a part Of Dr. Schopf's re- 
marks concerning ochers, clay, etc., in Pennsylvania, on pages 138 
and 139: "Clay deposits of various sorts, qualities, colors and re- 
fractoriness are frequent here and there in the low lying districts, 
and valleys at the bottoms and slopes of the hills . . .■ there 
are rather fine porcelain clays, ochers and others which approach 
lo Spanish brown or at least may be used for pain!." 

Dr. Schopf does not particularize the localities in Pennsylvania 
but a careful search through the early colonial records of Pennsyl- 
vania would doubtless show more exact localities and references to 
Ihc early use of such material. In Hazard's Register of Pa., (Vol. II., 
Nos. 2 and 6, Philadelphia, 1828) are references, among other Penn- 
sylvania minerals, to what were in all probability openings for ocher. 
These references are quoted in the "Begister" from articles in the 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, for 1829 
and also from Silliman's Jow nul. 

Ocher as commonly understood is a "native yellow to brown earth 
consisting of iron peroxide and water with varying proportions of 
clay used ;is a pigment and as a paint," or "any metallic oxide occur- 
ing in an earthy or pulverized form." (Standard Dictionary). This 
idea of an ocher as a natural powdery form of pigment has, in actual 
practice in Pennsylvania and elsewheic been erroneously very much 
enlarged in its scope to include shales, slates, and iron ores which 
when artificially ground to a powder resemble the natural product. 
This error is natural enough as it is not a mailer of importance to 
the paint mixer whether the pigment supplied him in a powdery form 
was found so naturally or whether it lias been artificially made by 
grinding a shale, so long as he has a uniform product with which 
to produce the paint or color. 

Many of the so-called ochers on the market today produced in 
Pennsylvania are made from shales or iion oies which have been 
calcined lo produce the color and carefully ground to powdery form. 
These are not ochers at all in the true sense of the word. These shale 
and bedded ochers are at times lighter in color than the true odie s. 
Recently Professor B. L. Miller (Bulletin 470, U. S. G. S.) has called 



106 

attention to the great variety of shales which are mined in Pennsyl- 
vania and which are spoken of frequently as ocher, these are properly 
speaking paint shales. 

The bases of ocher proper are the minerals of the type of limonite 
or goethite which are oxides of iron chemically united with water; 
also the mineral hematite, an oxide of iron without water. Limonite 
and goethite produce browns and yellows, while hematite produces 
reds, as does also turgite, a hydrous oxide of iron sometimes present. 

The base in which these minerals are held is the mineral clay. 
Sand and other objectionable impurities are often present. 

UMBER AND SIENNA. 

These pigments are analageous to llie ochers and represent a series 
of earthy pigments in which ores of manganese produce the peculiar 
lints. In fact both manganese and iron are usually present in umber 
and sienna. 

Umber and sienna are used in two states, "raw," and "burnt." 
Raw umber is brown or drab. Burnt umber is a reddish brown color 
and is richer than the raw umber. Raw sienna is brownish yellow, 
while after being burnt it possesses a strong reddish color: "burnt 
sienna." 

Tin; chief uses for umber and sienna are for tinting paints although 
they may of course be used for general pigment purposes. 

The following analysis of ocher from near White Haven, Pa., 
shows characteristic low grade ocher. "The ocher is a soft crumbling 
rock chiefly of a huffish yellow color."* 

ANALYSIS OF THE OCHER. 

Silica, 57.36 

Protoxide of iron, 1.62 

Peroxide of iron 2.94 

Alumina, 27.44 

Sulphate of lime, 1 .9:! 

Sulphate of magnesia 0.66 

Water 0.85 

Organic matter 4.50 

Total, 97.30 

Analysis by Hugh Hamilton. 

It is evident that the substance here is a material of a clay char- 
acter and is not true ocher, but a shale; the color is due to the small 
amount of iron oxide present. 

*OCHER DEPOSITS OF EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 

"The principal ocher belt in Pennsylvania is a comparatively nar- 
row strip extending from Reading to Allentown and approximately 
following the line of the East Pennsylvania branch of the Phila- 
delphia and Reading Railroad. The district is comprised in the Read 

'Annua! Heport, See. Geo. Surv. of Penna., 18S6, Part 4. p. 131li. 

•II. S. Geo!. Surv. Bull. 430. contributions to Economic Geology, 1909, Part I. 



107 

ing, Slatington, and Allentown quadrangles of the United States 
Geological Survey and lies iu the counties of Berks and Lehigh. 

"The Reading-Allentown ocher occurs in the Shenando limestone, 
of Cambro-Ordovician age. It is a residual deposit and was formed 
from the iron in the limestone during its disintegration. 

"The Moosehead ocher occurs as an original bedded deposit in the 
Mauch Chunk shale. It is of low quality with respect to its iron 
content. 

"The highest grade runs from 68 to 72 per cent. Fe 2 3 . It can be 
burned on the premises when the demand calls for it, but the greater 
pari of it is put on the market after being ground." 

ANALYSES. 
"The following analyses, secured from Henry Erwin & Sons, repre- 
sent the composition of typical finished ochers. The first three are 
probably mixtures containing foreign ochers, but the fourth (Top ton) 
is a local product: 

Analyses of ochers. 



o 


o 
S 




o 

a 



o 

f 




6 
I 


d 


DQ 


O 



Enston ocher 

"Pure Prince's Brown,.. 



'Xigtat red oxide," 
Topton ocher, 



.39.70 
.32.8 



2.05 

55.50 



.37.64 
46.89 



37.29 
17.49 



.13.26 
10.76 



IS. 66 



57.65 



1.37 
1.52 



1.39 1 



0.5 to 
2.0 



.10 
08.35 



liCombined. 
Analyses of ground slate and sienna. 



6 


O 


c 


6 

« 
6 


to 


d 


© 
3 


6 

a 
P. 



Ground slate, a 
Italian sienna, 



58.84 


6.50 


19.04 


1.60 


1.50 


2.47 


1.75 




19.23 


74.21 


1.32 


0.48 


Tr. 







0.50 



alJ>tm on ignition, 7.24. 



^Combined. 



"The following analyses for ferric oxide were made in the laboratory 
of the department of geology at Lehigh University by the writers: 



Percentage of ferric oxide (Fe^Oi) in ochers. 

Finished ocher (Boar Bros., Breinigsville, Pa.), 19.80 

Finished burnt ocher (Prince Metallic Paint Co., Alburtis, Pa.), 47.32 

Finished ocher No. 2 (Henry Erwin & Sous, Topton, Pa.) 11.85 

Finished ocher No. 4 (Henry Edwin & Sons, Topton, Pa.), 18.42 

Finisher ocher (Keystone Ocher Co., Fleetwood, Pa.) 27.77 

Finished ocher (Luzerne Ocher Mfg. Co., Moosehead, Pa.), 6.26. 



108 

PAINT ORES. 

Paint ores are generally distinguished from oeher, umber, sienna 
and other metallic materials as being those substances which need 
a treatment somewhat similar to the treatment of other "ores" to ob- 
tain the desired product. The original paint ore is a natural rock 
or mineral possessing either some particular color of its own which 
is used to produce a paint or tint of that color, or else the ore contains 
some iron or manganese mineral which upon being roasted will 
change to a different and also a more permanent color. 

The process of roasting is needed also in most cases to expell from 
the ore any materials present which are not of a permanent character 
and which after being mixed in a paint might decompose and ser- • 
iously impair the value of the paint. 

SIDERITB PAINT ORE. 

Carbonate or iron known as sideritc is a common paint ore and is 
typically displayed in the Lehigh Gap section. 

The actual paint ore or siderite in the raw state not uncommonly 
lias a striking resemblance to limestone though harder and decidedly ■ 
heavier. Along natural cracks in the beds the ore is often streaked 
with brownish or reddish stains from the oxidation of the iron ; when 
exposed on the surface it weathers out into roundish hard lumps 
of a brownish color known as iron stone or "clay iron stone." This 
is not uncommon in the outcrops along the so-called "ferriferous 
limestones" (Vanport) of western Pennsylvania where it has been 
mined in the past as an ore of iron. 

The Lehigh paint ore 1 "in its raw state has a dull metallic blue 
color; is fine grained arenaceous and quite hard. There are occa- 
sional occurrences of iron pyrite (sulphide of iron). The ore when 
roasted and ready for market is in the form of a very fine powder al- 
most entirely devoid of grit and in color is a very rich dark reddish 
brown." 1 

Partial analyses of crude "paint ore" from Lehigh Gap Dist. 2 . 

Metallic Iron 33.00 per cent. 

Metallic Manganese, 0.01 

Silica 25.00 

< ',! rbonic acid, 25.00 

The following is the composition of the ground paint from the Le- 
high District. 3 

l ,v :0 3 , 41—47 per cent. 

SiO, 32—37 

AW>„ 9-11 

CaO 1—3 

MgO, 1.7—3.5 

MnO, 0.35— 1 .8 

P 2 5 , 14— .17 

S, 5-1 

CO, 1.5—2.5 

H 2 6-.9 

'Mill. Bee. Geological Survey of Penna., Annual lieport, 1886, Part 4, p. 1405. 

m. S. Geo!. Surv. Bull. 430, p. 449. 

8 Idem., p. 453. 

Sec under Siderite for other localities. 



109 

PAINT SHALES. 

For the following details of the working of paint shales in Pennsyl- 
vania we aie indebted to the work of Prof. B. L. Miller above referred 
to. We quote as follows: (Bull. 470. U. S. Geol.' Survey, 1911.) 

"For certain purposes pigments of low tinting value, such as col- 
ored shales, have been found to be equal to those of more uniform 
composition and deeper color. In the manufacture of oilcloth and 
linoleum the mineral coating on which the color patterns are printed 
and also the under surface can be prepared as well from yellow and 
red shales containing only a small percentage of iron as from yellow 
and ied ochers in which the iron content is much higher. Singularly 
the paint thai is applied to a fresh surface of wood or metal pri- 
marily for the purpose of filling the pores and small cavities in order 
to make a smooth surface on which later coats of paint aie spread 
can be manufactured from materials with low tinting value. Black, 
red, and yellow shales aie utilized for these purposes, and the 
materials when prepared for the market arc known as paint tillers. 

"The mineral composition of the shales used as pigments is varied, 
but they are character ized by the absence of any minerals that readily 
decompose on exposure to atmospheric action. The minerals present 
must be inert and they must possess the desired color. The basis of 
all the shales is hydrated aluminum silicate (clay), together with con- 
siderable silica in the Form of quartz, the whole colored by iron, either 
in the hydrated form (limonite) or in the anhydrous condition (hema- 
tite), by graphite or amorphous carbonaceous matter, by manganese 
oxide, or by some other colored constituents. Sericite is not uncom- 
monly present and in many of the paint shales of Pennsylvania is 
a prominent constituent. 

"Besides the mineral composition it is necessary to determine the 
amount of linseed oil required for each pigment, as in the cheaper 
paints the oil costs much more than the dry colors and the materials 
requiring the minimum amount of oil are preferred by the manufac- 
turers of mixed paints. Many of the claims of superiority of one 
product over another are based on the lower absorption of oil." 

BLACK SHALES. 

Black shales are worked and in a ground form are sold as "Mineral 
Black" which 1 "is a pigment made by grinding a black form of slate. 
It contains a comparatively low percentage of carbon and conse- 
quently has low tinting value. It finds use as an inert pigment in 
compounded paints, especially for machine fillers. The pigment has 
a floculent appearance, the particles showing a strong tendency to 
mass." 

Black shales, black limestone, and black slaty rocks are widespread 
in Pennsylvania and have been used for black filler as stated. The 

'Bull. 29 Set. Section Paint Manufacturers Assn. of U. S., P. 35. 



1 



110 

» 

refuse from the slate quaries and culm banks of the coal mines have 
also been utilized. 

BLACK SLATES OF LEHIGH AND NORTHAMPTON COUNTIES. 

The Martinsburg shale in Lehigh and Northampton counties con- 
tains two belts of slate that have long been worked for roofing slate, 
blackboards, billiard-table tops, etc. A considerable amount of the 
refuse slate from these quarries has been sold to paint mills through- 
out the State and some has been shipped as far as Chicago. 

H. D. Rogers 1 described some slate in the vicinity of Nazareth that 
was worked for use in paint many years ago. 

BLACK SHALES AND COAL OP THE COAL REGIONS . 

The black shales of the 'Coal Measures' have also been used in the 
manufacture of paint to a minor extent. Culm has also been used, 
and a few years ago black paint was made from the outcrops of dis- 
integrated coal in the Schuylkill region near Pottsville. 

YELLOW SHALES. 

Yellow shales occur in many places throughout the Stale and al 
several geologic horizons, but particularly in the Marlinsburg and 
Mauch Chunk shales. The color is due to small per cents of oxides 
of iron. 

In a number of places these shales have been utilized in the manu- 
facture of paint, and when finely ground and mixed with oil they 
are very serviceable. Their principal use, however, is in the manu- 
facture of oilcloth and linoleum. 

Yellow shales are dug in Berks County from the Martinsburg form- 
ation (Hudson river) near Perry. In Carbon county at Slatington 
and Hudsondale. At Rockport and Penn Haven yellow shales, usually 
from the Mauch Chunk, are dug for paint; in Luzerne county are ex- 
tensive workings of shales ; yellow and of other colors. 

YELLOW SHALES OP WYOMING COUNTY 2 . 

Yellow shales of the Catskill formation of North Mountain, Wyom- 
ing county, have been tested by paint experts and pronounced valu- 
able for paints, so far as known, however, they have never been util- 
ized. 

RED SHALES. 

Red shales are especially well represented in the Martinsburg 
("Hudson river"), Catskill, and Mauch Chunk of the Paleozoic and 
the Brunswich shale of the Triassic. Near Greenwald, Berks county, 
it contains enough fine-grained sericite (a minute scaly form of mica) 

'Geology of Pennsylvania. Vol. 1, 1858, p, 249, 
! Eng. and Min. Jour., Vol. 28, p. 439. 



Ill 

to produce a soapy or talcose feeling when rubbed. On this account 
the material produced by the company is sold under the trade name 
'talckene.' 

OTHER POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PAINT ORES AND FILLERS. 
The following formal ions are worthy of note as affording probable 
si mi ices of paint products. 

THE CAMBRIAN. 

The shales and slates of this formation in the southeastern counties 
of the State are in some places free enough from grits and other im- 
purities to be worth experimental investigation. 

The limestones of the same formation, described as Trenton in the 
Second Geological Survey, and occurring in practically the same dis- 
tricts as above are frequently characterized by graphitic slates or 
shales suitable for paint use. 

PAINT ORE IN PERRY COUNTY.' 

In a few places in I'erry county as at Gibsons Bock the Oriskany 
Sandstone is overlaid by beds of iron ore; these have been utilized 
as paint material similar to the product of the Rocky Ridge in the 
Lehigh Gap. 

The Clinton Fossil Ore beds in Perry, Juniata, Mifflin, Blair, and 
other counties are available for paints, mortar colors, and as Metallic 
Paints. The various county reports of the Second Geological Survey 
show fully the available outcrops of these beds. 

in Wyoming anil oilier northeastern counties the Cat skill forma- 
tion contains many beds of red shales as do also the shales in the 
Conemaugh and Allegheny formations in the counties of the western 
part of the State where these formations occur. In Somerset county 
along Tain I Greek I lie red shales have been used for paint filler. The 
Triassie red shales in the S. E. section of the State are not as yet 
exploited. 

MORTAR COLORS.' 

'Character. — In making mortar colors the dry-color makers utilize 
also a wide variety of materials, and as the mortar colors are marketed 
they are probably mostly muxtures. Some iron oxide is used in 
their production, some "blue billy" ore, considerable ground slate 
or shale, and considerable culm from coal washeries. The colors 
are various shades of red, brown, purple, blue, and black, and the 
material is used for tinting mortar, cement, and concrete." 

Most Pennsylvania paint ores and shales carry appreciable quanti- 
ties of clays and lime and magnesia, which as is well known occur in 
hydraulic cement. These elements so far from being an objection are 
of great value in producing a paint which hardens under water and 
does not fade or scale and is in general remarkable for durability. 

] See Geological Survey of Penna.. Final Summary Rep., Vol. II, p. 1184, 
*E. F. Bureuaru, Mineral Kes, U. S. 1910. Washington, 1911. 



112 

This natural presence of cement material in Pennsylvania mineral 
paints is especially worthy of remark since the artificial introduction 
and use of hydraulic cements into paints is covered by patent. The 
following is quoted 1 "II. Loesner has patented (English Patent no. 
28,484, 1897) a method lor increasing the moisture resisting power of 
pigments, which consists in grinding the pigments in linseed oil in 
the presence of a certain proportion of hydraulic cement or cement 
diluted with sand. Precautions are taken to prevent the cement from 
absorbing water before the paint is applied to the iron work, so thai 
when the film is finally exposed the new ingredient is caused to set 
slowly by means of the moisture in the atmosphere, producing at last 
a thin layer of hardened cement or cement mortar embodied in a 
paint of ordinary composition. The incorporation of the cement is 
said not to interfere with the proper spreading of the pigment, which 
is claimed to be absolutely damp-proof and permanent."' 

MOLYBDENUM AND TUNGSTEN. 

Minerals carrying these metals are much sought after for the pur- 
pose of making special steel alloys. While minerals carrying these 
metals are rare in this Stale, they have been found and in the case 
of one, Molybdenite, further search may perhaps yield available sup 
plies. 

Molydenum minerals are Molybdenite — MoS,=60 per cent. Molyb- 
denum, a blue-black soft mineral in flake or scaly form, like graphite; 
when rubbed on paper it makes a greenish colored streak. 

Molybdite=66.7 per cent. Molybdenum; occurs as yellow coatings 
along with the preceding minerals; it is a molybdate of iron. 

Wulfetvite, a lead Molybdate which is rare. Found at the Ecton 
mine, Montgomery county, and the Phoenixville mine in Chester 
county, neither of which are now worked. This mineral is usually 
in square, yellow to orange colored plates. 

Stolzite, a lead tungstate is found along with the preceding. 

Molybdenite occurs in the talc-serpentine belt of Lehigh and North- 
ampton counties above Easton, (Pep. 5. Topographic and Geological 
Survey, 1911, p. 16.) It occurs also in Philadelphia, notably at 
Prankford in the gneiss: in quartz near Chester (Genth. Pep. B. Sec. 
Geol. Survey i ; in Berks county in the magnetite iron ores of Kitten- 
house Gap; and al Zions Church near Reading. Some Molybdite 
may be found with the above. While interesting specimens have been 
found of Molybdenite, no locality has yet given workable deposits. 

Bcheelite, calcium tungstate. a white shiny mineral with a very high 
specific gravity has been reported from the eruptive rocks, rhyolite, in 
the South Mountains, Adams county. The scheelite occurs in minute 
masses together with piedmont ite. (G. II. Williams, Amer. Jour, of 

'Mineral Industry, Vol. 7, p. ESS, N. v.. 1899. 

2 For a fuller discussion of the mineral paints and paint ores, see Rept. No. 4, of this Survey: 

"Tlie Mineral Pigments of Pennsylvania," by B. L. Miller. 






113 

Science, 3d Ber., vol. 16, 1896, pp. 50-57.) It is also reported from 
Hoffman's quarry, Fisher's Lane and Tacony creek, Frankford, Phila- 
delphia, ( E. T. Whery, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Jan. 1908.) 

MUSCO\ ITK. (See mlcm.) 
NICKEL AND COBALT. 

These two metallic elements so often occur together thai they are 
here treated under one head. 

Cobalt in Pennsylvania lias been found in some of the manganese 
ores as Wad and Psilomelane; as minute crystals a snip-arsenide 
at I'hoenixville, with the lead minerals, and at Cornwall, Lebanon 
county. It is not an important substance in this State. 

The chief ores of nickel so far as Pennsylvania occurrences go 
are as follows: 



< bmposltlon. 



I'.vrrliotite PeiiSn 

Ulllerlte ' NIS 

Geiltllite, 2N10,. 2MgO. 3SI0 2 . 6Hi-0, 



Theoretical 
Per Cent. 
Nickel. 



0-« 
64. 6 
22.46 



NICKEL IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

The nickel mines in this Slate are not only of considerable historic 
importance but for many years the only nickel produced in America 
came from the mines at Gap, Lancaster county. 

This mine was discovered in 1732 and was originally worked as a 
copper mine but was abandoned because of the small quantity of the 
production. In, or about, 1863 the mines were reopened as it was 
discovered thai considerable of the metallic sulphide ore was nickel 
bearing. The mine was operated as a nickel producer from 1863 to 
1888, as the only working nickel mine on the North American conti- 
nent. The product was smelted at Gap to a "nickel -matte" and from 
there shipped to Camden. New .Jersey, where the matte was refined to 
recover the nickel. In 1 !)02 the mine was again opened for a short 
time. II was the opinion of the late Mr. Joseph Wharton that as 
the Gap mine "was worked only to a depth of less than 300 feet.... 

it is reasonably certain that large resources of ore remain there 

untouched awaiting discovery by the diamond drill followed by mod- 
ern methods of mining and smelting" (18 Annual Rep. TJ. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey. PI. V, 1897.) 

In Report 3, p. -'71. Sec. Geol. Survey are analyses of the Gap 
ore showing from 1.53 per cent, nickel and cobalt to 4.23 per cent, of 
same. Copper runs from 1.10 per cent, in these samples to 2.20 per 
cent. This is a pyrrhotite, 
8 



114 

Millerite, nickel sulphide XiS, is found at (la]) mine and at times 
in considerable quantity. The following analysis is by Dr. Genth. 
(Rep. B. Sec. Geol. Survey.) 

Sulphur, 35 .14 

Nickel, 63.08 

Cobalt, 0.58 

Iron, 0.40 

Copper, 0.87 

Ga, 0.28 

100.35 

This rather pretty mineral is found in radiating masses of fibrous 
brass yellow material usually occurring as crusts in thin layers. 

Zaratitc, a vivid green carbonate of nickel has been found on 
chrome iron at Texas, Lancaster county. It is not a commercial 
mineral. 

Oenthite, a variety of Garnierite, is a silicate of magnesium some- 
what akin to Serpentine; it at times carries M0 per cent, of oxide of 
nickel. MO. It has a yellowish apple green color and rather waxy 
lustre. It also is found in the chrome localities. It may be worth 
while to remark that vegetable green stains which have penetrated 
rocks are frequently mistaken for stains of nickel or copper, and 
certain iron minerals have a color which may be mistaken for com- 
pounds of nickel or copper. 

other localities in the State are known for nickel minerals but 
they are not of value; these are at Van Arsdale's quarry in Bucks 
county, at the Lafayette soapstone quarries on the Schuylkill; near 
McKinney's quarries on the Wissahickon (with ehalcopyrite) ; in 
Alsace township, near Reading. 

OCHER. (Sec mineral paint.) 
ORTHOOLA8B. (3«6 feldspar.) 
taint oke. (See mlnerd paint.) 

PETROLEUM. 1 

Petroleum has been known so long in this State that references to 
it's presence may be found in the accounts of the expeditions, such 
as Burgoyne and others, to Western Pennsylvania before the Amer- 
ican Revolution. However this natural oil was not in general use 
as "coal oil" was made for many years by the distillation of coal. 
This was an important industry up to the discovery of petroleum in 
large quantity in this State. There is not space here to give the de- 
tails of this history, reference may be made to the various reports of 
the Second Geological Survey. 

1 Tlio developments in the petroleum industry since the time of the Second Geological Survey, 
have been so extensive, that it is Impossible in such a report as the present, to give any de- 
tails. To treat of the oil and gas Industry as it exists today, will reoolre ■ great amount of. 
work and time. Reference should be made to the reports of the r. S. Geol. Surv., made In 
co-operation with the State, covering jiortions of the oil and gas rields. and to rejiorts Nos. 
1 and 3. of this Survey. For a brief general review of the subject reference should be had to 
the report of the Top. and Geol, Surv. Com. for 1906-08. 



115 

From the early beginnings the industry has grown to he one of the 
most important in (his State and has been so for many years. 

At the present time there are over 50,000 producing oil wells in the 
State. 

These are located as follows: — Allegheny. Beaver, Bradford, But- 
ler, Clarion, Crawford, Elk, Fayette, Forest, Greene, Lawrence, Mc- 
Kean, Mercer, Tioga, Venango, Warren and Washington counties. 

Petroleums are usually divided in to these having a parafine base 
and those having an asphaltum base. Without going into details it 
may be said thai the parafine oils are the most valuable for producing 
illuminating oils and (lie gasolines or napthas. 

The Pennsylvania oils are predominantly parafine oils. 

•GEOLOGIC CORRELATION OF THE PRINCIPAL OIL SANDS OF PENN- 
SYLVANIA. 



Formation . 
Monongahela, . 
nonefaugh, ... 



Driller's Name. 
.Pittsburg coal, 



Allegheny, ... 

Pottsville, 

Mauch Chunk, 
Pocono, 



Geologist's Name. 

Pittsburg coal . 

.Murphy sand Morgantowu sandstone. 

Little Duukard sand, Saltsburg sandstone. 

Pig Dunkard, Hurry-up or Cow Mahoning sandstone. 
Run sand. 

.Gas sand, Kittnnning, Clarion 

Homewood sandstone. 



.Salt sand Sixtyfoot, Connoauonnessing, or Potts- 
ville sandstone. 



.Little lime, Salvation, or Max- Greenbrier limestone, 
ton sand. 

.Mountain, or Big Injun sand, Burgoon sandstone. 

Si|iiaw. 

Papoose. 

Butler gas, Butler 30-foot, gas, 
Salt, Murrysvillc, or Bcrea (?) 
sand. 

GantZ and Fiftyfoot or Hun- 
dred foot sand. 



Catskill, 



30-foot or Thirtyfoot 
or Stray- 



Chemung, 



. Nineveh 

sand. 
Snee, Blue Monday 

stray sand. 
Boulder, Gordon Stray, or 

Campbell Run (?) sand. 
Gordon, or Third sand. 
Fourth sand. 
Fifth sand. 

Fifth (McDonald) sand. 
Bayard, or Sixth sand. 

.Elizabeth sand. 
Warren first sand (?). 
Warren second sand (?). 
SpeecMey sand. 
Tinna sand. 
Bradford First and Second 

sands. 
Elk (?) sand. 
Kane (?) sand. 



•From report ot Topographic nrjd Geologic Survey Commission of Penna,, Harrisburg, 1908, 



116 

PHOSPHATE MINERALS. 

The minerals which carry phosphoric acid or its compounds are very 
numerous as to species, bu1 of these few are <>r commercial value arid 
of these few only a still more restricted number are found in Pennsyl- 
vania. In composition phosphatic minerals range from compounds 
of metals such as iron, lead, copper, the rare elements such as uran- 
ium and cerium; to lime, magnesia, etc. Many of these are of purely 
scientific interest while others are of very considerable value in com- 
merce and the useful arts. 

The mineral phosphates which have been found in this Slate are 
as follows: 

Apatite. A lime phosphate with fluorine and chlorine. Phos- 
phoric acid=41 — 42 per cent. 

Pyromorphite. A lead phosphate. Phosphoric acid=10 — 18 per 
cent. 

Vivianite. A phosphate of iron carrying water. Rare; at the 
old nickel mine at Gap, Lancaster county. 

Wavellite. A phosphate of alumina with water. 

In addition to the above species are some rare minerals carrying 
Vanadium and Uranium phosphates. The Uranium minerals are 
given under that head. 

Apatite has been found in Berks, Chester, Montgomery, Delaware, 
Philadelphia and York counties. There are no commercial workings. 
Apatite is a mineral somewhat softer than feldspar or steel, occurring 
in smooth, six-sided, prism-like crystals and showing a variety of 
colors, blue, green, brown, yellow and white. Apatite in some form 
is the basis of many phosphate rocks and is found in guano in part. 

The following are some of its chief localities in Pennsylvania. In 
large, rough, blue-green crystals at Leiperville and oilier gneissic- 
granitoid rocks near Chester, Pa., and Wilmington, Del.; al several 
quarries in West Philadelphia, at (>0th and Arch and Race streets; at 
McKinney's quarry, Germantown, and at Frankford in the same sort 
of rock as at West Philadelphia: in Chester county at Penn's Meet- 
ins house, London Grove township; with Magnetite at the old Jones 
Mine, Berks county; in the soapstone quarries at Lafayette, Mont- 
gomery county; at the old limestone quarry at Van Arsdale's, Bucks 
county. Apatite in small srystals, almost microscopic, has been 
found in the altered shales adjacent to trap at York Haven, York 
county. 

Wavellite, with Apatite, is the basis of most of the rock phosphates. 
Tt is mined in the State at Moores' Mill, four miles west of Mt. Holly 
Springs, Cumberland county ; and has been reported as occurring in 
Perry county. Large mases of Wavellite with hydrated iron ores 



117 



occur near White Horse Station "Steamboat"; East Whiteland town 
ship, Chester county. It was found also in the Limonite deposits of 
Lancaster county and probably in others of the old ore banks. 

The following analysis of Ihe White Horse sample is given in 
Gentb's Rep. B. 2nd Geol. Survey of Penna. 

Phosphoric acid, 34.68 

Alumina, 36.67 

Water, 28.29 

Limonite 0.22 

Ferric oxide, 0.00 

Fluorine, trace 

99.86 
Wavellite generally is found in very small srystals, in globular or 
lumpy masess with a tine radiating structure, or else in stalactitic 
masses which are sometimes smooth and at other times rough. The 
colors are pale blues and greens; grays, yellows or brown when iron is 
present. It occurs also in earthy forms in clays and shales and its 
presence is not always to be detected without a chemical analysis; 
such occurrences have been reported at the Trimble iron mine, Chester 
county. 

Wavellite is used as a source of phosphoric acid for fertilizing pur- 
poses ; and as a source of alum. 

It was formerly mined at White Horse. 

POTASH AND SALINi: MINERALS; BITTERNS. 
As the subject of potash and the search for potash sources is one 
of great interest and value, and as there are several possible sources 
of potash in this State, the following general remarks on the subject 
are quoted from a report by W. C. Phalen of the U. S. Geological 
Survey. 

"The metallic element Potassium j represented by the symbol K, is the basis 
of all potash salts, but the combination of potassium with oxygen, represented 
by the symbol K 2 0, has been generally adopted as the standard for measuring the 
potash value of the various kinds of potash salts. As a matter of fact, K 2 
does not exist commercially, being merely used as a convenient standard. The 
following table shows the "potash" or K 2 in the several commercial potash salts 
and minerals. ■ 



1 








u 5 


fa'a 




Is 


p w _ 


Name. Symbol. 


as 






e| 


*~ : V. 




s& 


i§~« 




Ph 


U 



Potassium 

or "potash" salts 
Potassium chlorldea (mineral sylvite), — 
Potassium muriate (same a.s chloride), .. 

ium sulphate, 

Potassium nitrate (saltpeter), 

Potassium hydrate or caustic potasl 

Potassium carbonate 

Potassium cyanide 

Stassfuri Minardla 

CarnaUite 

Kninite 

Rylvite (potassium chlorlae) 



KC1, . 

KSll,. 
KNO«, 
KOI!, 
K CO., 
KCN, 



CJ£gCl,.6H,0, .. 
MeSO,.KCl.SH,0, 

Kl-1 



54 
47 
84 



17 
13 
63 



(■Potassium chloride is in tlie trade known by the chemically obsolete term "muriate of potash.' 



118 

With these values in mind it is therefore easy to determine the real potash 
content of any potash-bearing mineral. Thus a fertilizer carrying 60 per cent, of 
sulphate of potash would confain 32.40 per cent, of "potash," or K 2 0. If i>iue 
wood ashes were guaranteed to carry 13 per cent, of potassium carbonate, they 
would as a matter of fact contain only 9 per cent, of K,0. Again, a compound 
carrying 90 per cent, of sulphate of potash woidd contain but 48.6 per cent, of 
K 2 0, while another compound carrying 80 per cent, of chloride of potash (or 
muriate of potash) would be equivalent to 50.4 per cent, of Iy.O. 

Potassium carbonate was for a long time the best-known potash salt, being 
the residue from boiling lye from wood ashes in iron pots, whence the name 
potash." 

The chief minerals which carry potash are, first, certain compounds 
known as silicates, that is compounds in which the element silicon 
acts as an acid to hold certain metallic or basic elements such as 
potash, soda, lime, etc. in chemical union. Of these silicate minerals 
the chief potash ones are feldspar of the Orthoclase or Microcline 
variety, muscovite (white or potash) mica, volcanic or igneous rocks 
such as rhyolite, and some other silicate minerals in which the potash 
content is either too small to be of use or is not in a form which 
may easily be obtained. In fact the mica and feldspar are not at 
present commercial sources of potash as the cost of extraction is too 
high. In addition to the above are some potassium chlorides, sul- 
phates, etc., such as alunite, a sulphate of alumina and potash; syl- 
vite, a potassium chloride, and other analageous minerals. 

Moreover, of late attention has been called to the refuse brine 
from salt wells, waters carrying mineral salt from oil and gas 
wells, etc. Brines are not at this time under serious investigation 
in Pennsylvania. Granitic and rhyolite rocks are found in the South 
Mountain and are also not now in use as sources of potash, and may 
never be used unless their potash content should be large enough to 
extract at a profit. The mica schists and the gneisses and granite 
rocks of the south-eastern counties of the State contain immense 
amounts of potash locked up in combination with silica and alumina. 
In addition it may be said that much orthoclase feldspar, now re- 
jected for porcelain making because of iron present, may perhaps be 
available for potash as soon as a cheap method of extraction is dis- 
covered. 

(See also under Salt and Salines for further information as to 
Potash.) 



SALT. 

SALT I5RINES AND OTHER SALINE MATERIAL. 

Under the head of potash reference was made to "brines." These 
are natural waters in which are found enough quantities of common 
salt, (sodium chloride), and other saline matter to be of commercial 
value. The elements found in these brines include, first, alkaline and 
metallic elements, such as potash, soda, magnesia, lime, litliia, iron, 



119 

alumina, etc., and also the elements of an acid character and known 
1o chemistry as the halogen or salt forming group. These latter, 
with their names and chemical symbols are: 

Fluorine, Fl . 

Chlorine, (31. 

Bromine Br. 

Iodine, I. 

Common salt, for example, is a chemical union between the element 
chlorine and the element sodium (Natron) having the chemical for- 
mula. NaCl. While this is the most valuable of these compounds 
there are others which are exceedingly useful and even necessary in 
civilized life. 

Bitterns are the residual brines left in the recovery of common salt 
from these natural waters. These "bitterns" contain potash coin 
pounds and are now under careful study by the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey as possible sources of potash. 

OCCURRENCE IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

1 1 may no1 be generally known that Pennsylvania has been a salt 
producing State for many years back, though at present the amount 
produced is small. The Pennsylvania Salt Company is one of the 
oldest companies of the kind in the country. 

At Saltsburg, Tarentum, Freeport and other localities along the 
Conemaugh river and on the Kiskiminetas river, saline waters were 
formerly worked for salt. While these are at present neglected they 
are very well worth consideration as possible sources of -potash. 

Bromine. Many of the salt waters of western Pennsylvania have 
rather large percentages of bromine compounds and in fact the first 
extraction of bromine in America was at Freeport in 1846. (H. Ries, 
"Economic Geology," 1910, p. 171.) At the present time bromine is 
still produced in this State. Bromides are used in photography, 
medicines and in chemical industry. 

The following analyses are taken from Genth, Rep. B. Sec. Geol. 
Survey of Penna., p. 26. 

ANALYSIS OF SALT WATER. 1 

(The quantities given are in parts per 1,000). 

Chloride of sodium 71.320 

< 'hloride of magnesium 3 9.S6 

Chloride of calcium (lime), 15.720 

Bi-carbonate of lime, 0.003 

Bicarbonate of iron 07S 

01.115 
■Water from the neighborhood of Saltsburg. 



120 

BITTERN (MOTHER LIQUOR) FROM FREEPORT. QUANTITIES IN 

PARTS PER 100. 

Chloride of potash, 0.128 

Chloride of soda, 0.887 

Chloride of lime, 24.640 

Chloride, bromide and iodide of magnesia, 10.146 

35.791 

The magnesium content of 10.146 parts was made up as follows: 

Magnesium , 2 . 5750 

Chlorine, 6 .8660 

Bromine, 0.7010 

Iodine, 0.0035 

10.1455 

Salt is still produced in commercial amount from Allegheny county. 

PSILOMELANE. (Six- manganese.) 
PYRITE AND MARCASITK 

These two minerals are both sulphides of iron, FeS 2 . They are 
used for producing sulphuric acid, the refuse matter after burning is 
sold under the name of "blue billy" as a mineral paint, and as an iron 
ore in small part. Pyrite occurs in slates, shales, limestones, in 
quartz veins, and is common in coal mines. Being of a bright yellow 
color and having a shine and sparkle it is very often mistaken by the 
inexperienced for gold. While pyrite occurs in many places in the 
State in small quantities, it is not a commercial mineral in Pennsyl- 
vania. It has been mined in Mercer county, probably from the coal. 
It occurs sparingly in limestones and in some of the iron ores. 

Pyrite is found in lumps or in crusts of square, bright yellow 
crystals in the coal-mine slates, and is often called "sulphur" by the 
inexperienced. This is not correct as pyrite is a compound of sul- 
phur and iron. It is sometimes polished and sel as an ornamental 
stone. Pyrite has been found in very beautiful crystalline forms at 
French cree'-, Chester county, where it occurs with magnetic iron 
oxide and chalcopyrite. This locality, while of great scientific in- 
terest, is not one of commercial importance. 

I'ljrrhotite, a sulphide of iron having the composition of Fe^S,., is 
also used as a source of sulphuric acid. This mineral is of a dark 
bronze, brown color and is somewhat magnetic. Its occurrences in 
the State have been mentioned under the head of nickel minerals as 
pyrrhotite. It is chiefly valuable as an ore of nickel. Pyrrhotite 
is not as frequent a mineral as pyrite in its occurrences. 

ANALYSIS OF PYRITE "FROM THE COAL MEASURES." 1 

Bisulphide of iron 06.161 

I '.isulphide of copper, Trace 

Alumina, 00.653 

Lime 0.450 

Magnesia, 0.140 

Silica , 0.680 

Undetermined 1 .916 

• 100.000 
■Analysis by 3. M. Stimson Sec. Geol. Survey, Kept. M2. p. 374. 



121 

The two following analyses by McCreath show the paint produced 
from the above pyrite after roasting by the Oriental Paint Co., James- 
town, Pa. Analysis No. 1 shows the unwashed product; No. 2, the 
same alter washing to remove the sulphuric acid which would impair 
the paint if allowed to remain. 

ANALYSIS OF "BLUE BILLY." 1 

Sesquioxide. of iron, Fe 2 0„ 66.143 77.143 

Protoxide of iron, FeO 6.300 5.142 

BiBulphate of iron, FeS 0.415 0.405 

Alumina, AI.O,, 0.697 0.543 

Lime, OaO, 0.160 0.160 

Magnesia, MgO 0.100 0.100 

Sulphuric acid. SO,, 13.110 7.334 

Silica, Sin.. 3.880 3.980 

Water and carbon matter, 9.195 5.193 

100.. 00 100.00 

i • v i : ( 1 1 . i site. (See manganese.) 

PYBOMOBPHITB. (See load.) 

QUARTZ . 

Rock crystal; Flint, Si() 2 , silicon dioxide. This is the most abun- 
dant of ail known minerals; it varies widely in its form, occurring 
as sand, sandstone, quailzite, vein quartz, flint, chert; as gem like 
rock crystal and amethyst; it is also an essential part of granite and 
in addition is found largely in schists and in veins in granite where 
it is nearly always associated with feldspar, mica and garnet. Some 
petrified wood is quartz or flint. 

Quartz in the form of rock crystal is found in six-sided crystals 
with pyramidal ends. These crystal forms vary in length so as to be 
at times very much longer than thick. At other times they are short 
and stumpy. They are possessed of a high, at times a very brilliant, 
lustie and when the laces (sides) of these crystals are smooth and 
the specimen free from iron or other stains they are sometimes mis- 
taken for diamonds. 

Quartz is a very hard mineral, much harder than steel, breaks 
with no definite diiection and when in pure, massive state often has 
the appearance of white ice or snow. In roc'.c crystal form it may be 
clear, transparent and colorless; in other specimens the color varies 
from yellows to browns and pink; amethyst is a purple-blue variety. 
Iron stains change the color and are exceedingly common. The mas- 
sive foims such as sandstone, and quartzite are described elsewhere 
in this report. 

Quartz is of wide occurrence and usefulness in its various states. 
As rock masses or otherwise it is used in various forms of structural 
work as sandstone and sand, as described under those heads. In ad- 
dition if is used a.s material for glass making, as foundry and other 
sands; il is employed as an abrasive, for sandpaper and scouring and 

>Soc. Geo], Survey of Penaa., Kept. M2, p. 374. 



122 

polishing material in soaps and other suhstances; it is used in wood 
filler and paints, for lining acid steel furnaces and puddle furnaces, 
it is used also as a flux in extraction of copper ores, as material for 
making ferrosilicon ; as material in sand-lime brick and other brick 
and clay products and in mortar. Quartz in the form of sand is in- 
troduced into certain sorts of clays used for pottery to decrease the 
shrinkage of the ware in burning. Owing to its insoluble character 
it is employed as a means of filtering the strong mineral acids in acid 
towers, for this purpose the quartz rock must be free of iron and 
other soluble mineral matter. 

Of late years quartz has come into wide use as a material of which 
to make chemical apparatus which is known as "fused quartz ware." 
The finest quality of this ware is made from very carefully hand- 
picked pure rock crystal known as "Brazil Pebble" from the fact that 
the old diamond washings from Brazil yielded such material. Of late 
years quartz has been treated in the electric furnace to obtain chemi- 
cally pure silicon which in turn is used lo reduce the oxides of tung- 
sten, chromium, etc., lo metallic form; this the silicon does because 
of its strong affinity for oxygen, absorbing it and going back to silica 
again. 

In short, quartz is used for so many different purposes that it is one 
of the most useful and valuable of all known minerals. 

Its Occurrence in Pennsylvania is widespread as sands, and sand- 
stones, as glass making material, ganister and so forth. These are 
described elsewhere. 

Quartz crystals have been found loose in the soil and ploughed up 
or washed out by the rain in some of the old limestones of the eastern 
part of the State. 

The following are some of the many localities where crystals have 
been found: These are in part mentioned in Genth's report on the 
mineralogy of the State and others are taken from specimens in va- 
rious collections, public and private. 

Berks county near Kutztown; and Reading ; Chester county; at 
Poorhouse quarry, West Bradford township; at Brintons and other 
quarries in East Bradford township; at Pennsbury occur crystals 
enclosed in mica; Delaware county at many places in Concord, Marple 
and other townships; in the serpentine barrens quartz in interesting 
masses, often with groups of small crystals, is found where it has 
weathered out of the serpentine. 

In the Saucon Valley. Lehigh county, occur interesting forms of 
quartz; in Mifflin county in the limestone soils of Kishacoquillas 
Valley crystals of a very long prismatic shape have been found since 
the first settlement of the valley and are still to be picked up, though 
not as common as formerly; in Monroe county at Stroudsburg (gem 
quality), Broad Mountain, Sliamokin, Cherry Valley. Poconac Vat- 



1 



123 

ley; in Montgomery county at London Grove, King of Prussia, Plioe- 
nixville and many other places; in the counties of Lancaster and 
York, crystals have been found frequently, in Lancaster county at 
Kintzers, Pequea and New Holland; in York county crystals were 
formerly gathered by the farmers and sold to flint mills around the 
city of York. Crystals may still be had in the quartzite hills about 
York and in some of the beds of the small streams, as Trout Run ; in 
Northampton county at Nazareth occur large and beautiful crystals. 

Amethyst is a variety of quartz of blue-violet color much prized as 
gem stones. Some really magnificent specimens of Amethyst have 
been found in Pennsylvania from very small crystals up to clusters 
weighing many pounds. Individual crystals weighing seven pounds 
or more have been found in upper Providence, Lower Providence, 
Aston, Concord. Marple and Middletown townships, as at Buttons 
Mills; in Chester county equally fine ones have heen found as at 
Sadsbury Village, in East Bradford township and elsewhere; in 
Adams county at New Salem ; slightly tinted crystals have been found 
and are still obtainable in the South Mountain near Ortanna and 
elsewhere. 

Smoky Quartz is a dark smoky gray to black form often very at- 
tractive when cut. 

Smoky quartz in very fine crystals is found at approximately the 
same localities as mentioned under Amethyst. 

RADIUM, RADIUM ORB. (See under uranium.) 

urin.K. is,.,- titanium minerals.) 
SALT. (See potash and salines.) 
SAND, SANDSTONES. (See Silk-a.) 

SERPENTINE. 

Serpentine is a silicate of magnesium with water, occurring both 
as mineral and in rock masses. It has in its purest varieties a semi- 
transparent quality which places it among the more valuable of orna- 
mental stones; precious or noble serpentine has a fine oily or waxy 
lustre, possesses a rich green color, pale or dark, and may be polished 
to a very high degree. Other forms of the mineral serpentine are 
used as a substitute for the precious stone jade. Chrysolite is a 
fibrous form of serpentine popularly called asbestos and used as such. 

Rock masses of serpentine are among the frequent forms; these are 
not generally pure hut carry dolomite; magnesite, calcite, quartz, and 
are not infrequently stained by oxides of iron and chromium, pro- 
ducing a great variety of very beautiful colors. These rock" masses of 
serpentine when cut into pillars or columns and when dressed into 
slabs or blocks are known as serpentine-marble. Verde antique, 
known also as ophicaldte, is a mottled form of such marble showing 
rich, rather spotted contrasts of color. It has been referred to under 
marbles. 



124 

Serpentine of all sorts is a product of chemical and physical alter-. 
atiou of some other minerals or rocks and is to be looked for in conse- 
quence in rather restricted areas. In Pennsylvania it is found alon.u 
the Great Valley, in masses among the crystalline limestones, where 
it has most probably been formed by the chemical altera I inn of im- 
pure, silica-bearing dolomite limestone. In Lehigh and Northampton 
counties occur some of (he more valuable forms, such as noble serpen- 
tine and verde antique. Serpentine is distributed through an area 
from Northampton county diagonally across the State to the Mary- 
land line from the Susquehanna River to the Delaware, along the 
State line, occur large masses of serpentine. The chief localities are in 
the counties of Northampton, Lehigh, Berks, Lancaster, York, Ches- 
ter, Delaware; it occurs also in Lebanon, Montgomery and may per- 
haps be found iu some of the altered limestones in Dauphin, Adams 
and Franklin counties, though not reported from these last. 

It is quarried at Easton, along with talc, ai some 15 or more locali- 
ties in that district; it has been quarried in the past in a number of 
localities in Chester and Delaware counties where the stone for 
houses in Philadelphia was obtained. 

SERPENTINE AS BUILDING STONE. 

The merits and demerits of serpentine rock for outside use have 
been somewhat widely discussed with the expression of rather con- 
flicting views and Ihe citation of equally conflicting evi- 
dence. The reason for this Mate of things is not at first 
sight clear. Serpentine was used as early as Colonial days for ex- 
terior building iu the State and some of these old houses are still 
in an excellent state of preservation and show little atmospheric 
decomposition; on the other hand some houses built in Philadelphia 
in recent years are in a very advanced stage of softening and decom- 
position so far as the serpentine is concerned. This difference in be- 
havior is not so much due to variation in the rock as to variation 
in the condition of the atmosphere. Serpentine being chiefly of a 
magnesian nature is easily affected by certain sorts of acid vapors 
in the air, such as sulphurous ones. These sulphurous vapors are 
not especially noticeable in the rural districts but are very pro 
nounced in cities where smoke and vapors from chemical and other 
manufacturing plants are very common. Magnesian rocks are espe- 
dally susceptible to such vapors as magnesium sulphate is an ex- 
ceedingly soluble compound. Moreover, serpentine carries consid- 
erable iron in a low state of oxidation (as much as 12-14 per cent, at 
times) this under exposure to the atmosphere changes to a higher 
slate of oxidation, and if this chance is accompanied by a simul- 
taneous affecting of the magnesium, decomposition of the rock is al- 
most certain to follow. 



125 



Some of the buildings of the University of Pennsylvania near the 
Schuylkill River, faced with serpentine, afford very interesting illus- 
trations of these facts ; they were erected in 1871-1872 and are now, 
especially on the southern and eastern sides, (the 'sides of greatest 
wind exposure) very seriously affected. To the south of the Uni- 
versity are large manufacturing plants, oil refineries, and railroad 
lines; these all, through smoke vapors and fumes from the refineries, 
produce considerable quantities of sulphur gases which have eaten 
into the serpentine facings of buildings; a further illustration, if any 
are needed, to show the great necessity of elimination of smoke and 
acid vapors from the atmosphere. 

In Berks and Chester counties aie serpentine houses which are 
over a century old and are still in a fresh and sound state; this is 
due to the fact that the air, to a great extent, is free of smoke, fumes 
and destructive vapors. 

The facts then seem to be that under favorable atmospheric con- 
ditions serpentine is not only an exceedingly beautiful exterior stone 
but is durable. Under the conditions of atmosphere in practically 
all of our cities its use is at least of doubtful expediency for general 
exterior building purposes; though even in the weathered form it is 
possessed of considerable attraction and beauty. Its use for interior 
decoration is not affected by the above factors and for these uses it 
will always he of great value. 

Other buildings in Philadelphia constructed in part or entirely of 
serpentine, exteriorly, are scattered generally over the city. Among 
the more prominent ones were the old buildings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences at Logan Square. These were in a very bad con- 
dition from the decomposition of the serpentine, and have been re- 
faced with other material; the building at the southwest corner, fac- 
ing north, was very much affected at the northeast corner, doubtless 
due to railroad smoke, which carries much sulphur vapor, as all coal 
smoke docs. The edilice of St. James Church, at Twenty-second and 
Walnut streets, also of serpentine, is a further instance of the injury 
done by smoke; it also has been redressed to remove the decomposed 
surface. 

SHALES. 
Shales are clay rocks which occur in beds or natural layers known 
as strata and are the result of the depositing of clay materials in 
water. These water deposits are subsequently hardened and com- 
pacted into rock which usually has to be ground to bring it into a 
powdery condition. Shales are not as a class as pure as some other 
clay materials and show graduations into limestone on the one hand 
and into sandstones on the other. The following table shows a com- 
posite anlysis of 78 shales made in the laboratory of the U. S. Geolo- 
gical Survey at Washington. 1 

'Bull. U. S. Geol. Sury. 491, p. 28. The Data of Geochemistry. 



126 

Si0 2 silica 58.38 

Al.O, alumina, 15.47 

l'V,G, ferric oxide, 4.03 

1'ib ferrous oxide, 2.46 

Mgf), 2.45 

OaO 3.12 

Na,0 3.12 

ICO, 3.25 

H,0 110° 1 .34 

H,0 +110°, 3.68 

TiO, 0.65 

CO,, 2.64 

P.d, 0.17 

s; 

S<> 3 , 0.65 

CI, 

P.aO, 0.05 

SiO, none 

MnO, trace 

Li.O , trace 

Carbon (organic) , 0.81 

100.46 

The average composition of shale in terms of the minerals present 
lias also been expressed by the same authority as the previous anlysis. 
Tli is is as follows: — 

Quartz (total free silica), 22.3 

Feldspars .• 30.0 

Clay, 25.0 

I.imonite, 5.6 

Carbonates 5.7 

Other minerals, 11 .4 

100.00 

Slates are shales which have been subjected to such severe pressure 
and chemical change that the physical characters of clay are lost. 
They do not become plastic upon grinding and are of little or no use 
in clay working. 

Shales to be used in clay working are artificially disintegrated or 
crashed, which is usually done dry. The shale may have to be 
crushed in jaw-crushers and afterwards ground in pans to a powdery 
condition. Shales are used for making the various types of vitrified 
ware, such as terra-cotta and brick, "shale brick" being a common 
type. 

Shales in Pennsylvania are of wide occurrence and are found in 
both the older and later geological formations. The Cambrian shales 
such as those found in the vicinity of York are used for shale brick. 
The shales from the Clinton, Niagara, and Carboniferous are also 
used for this purpose. The shales from the "red-beds" of the Triassic 
are not used as commonly as are lliose of the other formations. 

"Ochers" are often made from shale; see mineral paint. 

Shales are of practically unlimited quantity in the State though 
not always of value for brick or tile; most of the shale in present use 
for this purpose is from the Conemaugh formation of the carbonifer- 
ous. 



127 

ANALYSIS OF BRICK SHALES FROM CONEMAUGH FORMATION EAST 
OF JOHNSTOWN, PA. 1 



Fluxing Impurities 



(1) 

Silica, 51.32 

Alumina, 24.. Sit 

6.94 

14 

1.93 

70 

1.09 

23 

92 



Fe^Oa, 

Mno . 

MgO, 

CaO, 

K" 2 0, 

Na..O, 



HjO 100°, 

Ignition loss 11.32 



SO, 



Rational Analyses. 



Freo silica, . 
Clay subs . , . 
Feldspar sub. 



trace 



(2) 

64.29 

17.96 

5.74 

trace 

1.30 

.46 

1.80 

.35 

.95 

5.44 

trace 



100.21 99.92 



10.0!) 28.54 

81.51 57.85 

8.40 13.61 



Shale brick. It has been found by experience that some clays are 
not suitable for brick making when used alone as tbey do not give 
sufficient strengthening qualities to the brick. Tn consequence .of 
this fact ground shales are added to the mix or the ground shales 
may be used with practically no clay admixture. Analyses of such 
shales and clays are given here from the Ohio Geological Survey. 

ANALYSES OF SHALE AND CLAY, a. 



Kio., (total) 

Al,o, 

Fe,O s 

OaO 

MgO 

K II 

Na>0 

HjO (combined i . . 
II2O (uncombined), 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


58.20 


49.30 


57.45 


55.60 


22.47 


21.00 


21.06 


24.34 


5.63 


8.40 


7.54 


6.11 


.62 


.56 


.29 


.43 


.98 


1.60 


1.22 


.77 


3.08 


3.91 


3.27 


3.00 


.42 


.19 


.39 


.09 


6.16 


9.40 


5.90 


6.75 


1.65 


1.20 


1.90 


2.65 


99.20 


98.56 


99.02 


99.74 



57.15 

20.26 

7.54 

.90 

l.f.2 

3.05 

.58 

5.50 

2.70 



99.30 



aOrton, Geol. Survey Ohio, vol. 7, pt. 1, 



3. pp. 133. 134. 



1. Sbnlos end Bre clays mixed, from the T. It. Townsend Brick Company, Zanesviile, Ohio; 
Freeport shales and Kittanning tire clay. N. W. Lord, analyst. 

2. Shale from Wayneebnrg Brick and Clay Manufacturing Company; Middle Kittanning (Dar- 
lington?) horizon. N \Y. Lord, analyst. 

3. Slinle from the Ohio Paving Company. Columbus, Ohio, mined at Darlington, Obio; Lower 
Kittanning bortaon. Average sample. N. "W. Lord, analyst. 

4. Shale anil fire-clay mixture, from the A. O. Jones Company, Znnesville, Ohio; Kittanning 
horizon. N. YV. Lord, analyst. 

:.. Shales used by Bucyrus Brick and Terra Cotta Company, mined nt Glouster, Ohio; horizon 
of Cambridge (near Ames) limestone. Average sample. N. W. Lord, analyst. 

SIDERITE. (See iron ores.) 

SILICA. SAND. SANDSTONE. 

Silica, silicon dioxide, SK) 2 , occurs as one of the most wide-spread 
rock or mineral forms in nature; as sandstone, as flint, as quartz, and 
in chemical union with hosts of other mineral and rock masses it is 
practically universal in its occurrence. 



>U. 8. Geo]. Surv. Folio 174, Washington, 1910, p. 14. 



128 

Sand and sandstone a;e rocks made up of small pieces of quartz, 
which have generally undergone a long continued natural giinding 
and sorting by running water. While most sandstone is made up es- 
sentially of these quartz grains, other minerals occur such as mica, 
or more seldom, feldspar, with a further transition on the one hand to 
sandy limestone and on the other to sandy shale. 

Sandstone is held together naturally by a binding material or ce- 
ment. This is frequently some of the oxide compounds of iron, or it 
may be silica itself or even calcite. Sand, as generally spoken of, 
means the loose sand grains or it may mean the sand rock crushed to 
a fine condition; standard sand as specified by the American Society 
for Testing Materials must be at least 95 per cent, pure silica (SiOj 
and shall pass through a "No. 4" sieve. 

Gravel is a loose mixture of sand mains and pebbles. This is com- 
mon along water courses and in this Slate is often found in the north- 
ern tier of counties above and along the streams below the glacial 
drift line. 

Sand and sandstones aie used for many purposes; as abrasives, 
as sand in mortars and cements and concrete, as filter sand, as foun- 
dry sand, as material for glass making and pottery, porcelain, tile 
and brick; as structural material of other sorts such as building 
stone. 

Quartzite is a term applied by geologists to rock which in its first 
origin was a sandstone, sometimes a gravel rock (conglomerate), 
which has undergone such a change in structure due to the filling of 
the pores by secondary quartz that in large measures the original 
sand grains are no longer apparent and the rock mass appears to be 
solid quartz. These quartzites are found in the southeastern portion 
of the State among the older rock formations. 

On account of the varieties in sand rock and because of the diver- 
sity of use, the following names may bo mentioned as being in com- 
mon use. 

Arkose, a sandstone made up of fragments of granite, that is to 
say, a rock composed of much free quartz with mica and feldspar. 
This is often called "granite-sandstone." This rock is found in the 
Triasic beds in Montgomery, Bucks and York counties and elsewhere. 
It possesses the very valuable quality of hardening upon exposure 
after quarrying and is valuable for certain sorts of structural work. 

Blue stone is a term not always definitely used; properly speak- 
ing, it is a fine grained, compact, dark blue sandstone with some 
clay substance. It is often a flagstone and is also used for ballast 
or road metal, though not especially good for this use. The term 
blue stone is also applied at times to blue limestone. 

The typical blue stone comes from Pike, Wayne or other north- 
eastern counties. Its production has been reported from Adams, 



129 

Bradford, Bucks, Clinton. Fayette, Greene, Lackawanna, Luzerne, 
Lycoming, McKean, Pike, Poller, Schuylkill, Susquehanna, Wayne, 
Westmoreland and Wyoming counties, though whether this is always 
typical blue stone may well be doubted, as different rocks, as stated, 
are sold as blue stone. 

Brownstone originally meant a brown or reddish brown sandstone 
from the Triassic formation. Its typical locality in this State is at 
or near Hiimmelstown where it has been quarried in the past in enor- 
mous quantity as a building stone known widely as "Pennsylvania 
Brownstone." Of late years il lias not been used as much as for- 
merly. It is a very beautiful building stone and when properly se- 
lecled and set up in the building will last indefinitely, as many old 
houses show. It sometimes carries a considerable quantity of shale 
which, of course, is not good for buildiug purposes. 

Of late years a considerable range of other sandstones which are 
brownish or reddish hare been called "brownstone," so that now the 
term lias not always a definite reference to any particular rock or any 
particular location. The brown color is, of course, due to oxides of 
iron which is one reason for the stone's durability, as the iron is al- 
ready in a thoroughly oxidized condition and will not stain or cause 
the rock to crumble. Of late years the Hummelstown brownstone 
has been used for making "sand-lime" brick. 

The following analyses show its general character. 

ANALYSES OF BROWN STONE. 1 

A B 

SiOj, silica, 88.13 82.34 

AUK,, alumina, 5.81 11.46 

I'V 2 0,, ferric oxide 1.77 1.07 

i-'eO, ferrous oxide, 0.31 

Cat), lime, 0.20 0.27 

MgO, magnesia, 0.53 0.19 

MnO., manganese oxide .07 

K.O. potash 2.63 .17 

Na,0, soda 0.06 3.76 

H.X), water 0.49 .80 

99.93 100.13 
Analysis "A" is from Hunmu'lstown : "B" is from Newtown, Bucks county. 

While the Triassic rocks in Pennsylvania occur in quite a large 
area they are not always of value as brownstone producers; the chief 
localities are in a general south-western direction from Trenton, N. 
J., through Bucks, Berks, Montgomery, Chester, Lebanon, Dauphin, 
York, Adams and other adjacent counties. 

The Mauch Chunk, the Medina, Catskill, Pocono, and other sand- 
stones are sometimes brown or red enough to be classed as brown- 
stone. 

'Brownstone" is quarried at Birdsboro and Mohrsville, Berks Co.; 
Grenoble Station, Lumberville, Neshaminy, Newtown and Yardley, 

»T, C. Hopkins, Annual Rep. of 1'enna. State College, 1896. 

9 



130 

Bucks Co.; Phoenixville and Valley Forge, Chester Co.; Hummels- 
town, Dauphin Co.; Mount Gretna and Schafferstown, Lebanon Co.; 
Morristown, Port Kennedy and Port Washington, Montgomery Co. 

Formerly quarried at Middletown, Dauphin Co.; and Goldsboio 
(Etters), York Co. 

Some of this is not true brownstone ; the stone from Lumberville is 
usually grey or pink in color, and there are other localities where 
true brownstone is not quarried, though the product is sold as such. 
Most brownstone is arkose, which is one reason indeed for its' value, 
as arkose, though easily quarried, hardens very materially on drying 
out on exposure. To obtain the best results from brownstone it 
should be cut and dressed to the form in which it is intended to be 
used before being allowed to dry out. 

The Trias brownstone is obtained generally from the beds known 
as the Xorrisioum of B. S. Lyman, (Sec. Geol. Sur.), or as the Stock- 
ton of the N. J. Geol. Survey. 

Flagstone. This is a sandstone generally, though flagstones are 
sometimes made of limestones of a shaly character. The chief and 
useful feature is the fact of the rock being in flat, thin, easily sepa- 
rated layers, which are suitable for pavement use. Flagstones from 
the limestone members above the Pittsburgh coal are in common use 
in Brownsville, California, Monongahela and other towns along the 
Monongahela river. These flagstones are often sandy and clay hear- 
ing and show at times very beautiful ripple marks. 

Freestone. This is a form of sandstone which splits freely and 
dresses easily in almost any form desired. 

Mill stones, grindstones, whetstones and similar stones are usually 
made from sandstone. 

Ganister is a sandstone used for refractory brick, and resembles 
quar'tzite in appearance ; it has generally a grey color. Ganister has a 
less pronounced granulation than most sandstone and is more firm 
and compact. 

Tt is mined for silica brick at Pattonsville, Bedford Co., McKee 
Gap and Point View, Blair Co., and Water Street Gap, Huntingdon 
Co. 

'ANALYSES OF GANISTER FROM CANOE MOUNTAIN, POINT VIEW, PA. 

[Isaac Reese S Sons Company, Analyst.] 



Silica [SiOal 

[Iron and alumina] (Fc : 3 ,Al [AljO.]) 

I-irac [CoOl ." 

Magnesia [MgO] 

Loss on ignition 



1. 


2. 


3. 


87.99 


97.98 


97.30 


.90 


.95 


1.20 


.40 


.25 


.30 


.36 


.29 


.30 


.40 


.50 


.85 


99.96 


99.97 


99.93 



98.65 
.30 
.25 
.30 
.45 



99.95 



•Charles Butts, D. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 



131 
ANALYSES OF GANISTEIl FROM QUARRIES AT POINT VIEW, PA. 



[Silica] (SiOa) 

IV and Al [Iron and alumina (FetOc, A1 2 3 )] 

Lime [CaO], ■ 

Magnesia [MgO], 

Loaa "ii ignition, 



1. 


2. 


99.10 


9S.15 


.60 


1.20 


None. 


None. 


Trace. 


Trace. 


.26 


.20 



98.20 

1.35 

None. 

Trace. 

.50 



ANALYSIS OF CANISTER FROM PATTONSVILLE, BEDFORD COUNTY, 

PA. 

110. P. Wood, Aiml.v-.-it.] 

[Silica] (SKW 98.00 

Alumina [Al.O,]. 110 

Oxide of iron [Fe,0,], 85 

Combined water, -10 

ANALYSIS OF GANISTEIl FROM WATER STREET GAP, HUNTINGDON 

COUNTY, PA. 

[S. A. Ford, Edgar Thompson Steel Works, Braddoek, Pa., Analyst.] 

Silica (SiO 97.640 

Oxide of iron [Fe,0 3 ], 652 

Alumina [A1..0.J, 825 

Lime [CaOJ 310 

Magnesia [MgO] 140 

Loss on ignition, 460 

The specific gravity of ganister ranges from 2.46 to 2.58. 

The composition of silica brick as made from Blair County ganis- 
ter is shown below. 



COMPOSITION OF SILICA BRICK MADE FROM GANISTER IN BLAIR 

COUNTY, PA. 1 



Sili.-a 

Of iron 

Oxide of manganese, 

Alumina 

I.iim- 

Magnesia 

Potasb 

Ko.iu 



1. 


2. 


96.06 
.535 
.04 
.935 
1.45 
.526 
.146 
.045 


95.06 
1.21 


1.79 

1.79 

Trace. 





Other localities for ganister in Pennsylvania are to be looked for 
in the mountain counties of central Pennsylvania and in the "quart- 
Kites" of the York-Lancaster district, and in general in the south- 
eastern part of the State where quartzite out crops. 

In the Fayette district ganister has been quarried in a number of 
places. The general requirements of ganister rock are to be seen 
from the Blair county analyses. 



'Oliarles Butts, U. S. Gcol. Surv. Bull. 



132 

Molding sand (foundry sand) occurs as follows: Pittsburgh, Alle- 
gheny, Co.; Koppel, Beaver Co.; Berne and Hamburgh, Berks Co.; 
Hollidaysburg, Blair Co.; Tullytown, Bucks Co.; Cabot, Butler, Co.; 
Aslilield and Bowmanstown, Carbon < 1 o. ; Falls Creek, Clearfield Co.; 
Cattawissa, Mifflinville and Rupert, Columbia Co.; Harrisburg, 
Dauphin Co.; Ridgeway, Elk Co.; Erie and Fairview, Erie Co.; Dun- 
bar, West Masontown, Perryopolis and Republic, Fayette Co.; 
Waynesboro, Franklin Co.; Mapleton Depot and Mill Creek, Hunting- 
don Co.; Marietta, Beartown, and elsewhere, Lancaster Co.; Moravia 
and New Castle, Lawrence Co. ; Cementon, Lehigh Co. ; Linden and 
Nisbet, Lycoming Co.; Burnhain and Lewistown, Mifflin Co.; Edge 
Hill and Win. Penn, Montgomery Co.; South Bethlehem and Free- 
maiisburg, Northampton Co.; Milton and Riverside, Northumberland 
Co.; Newport, Perry Co.; Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co.; Rowena, 
Somerset Co.; Lopez, Sullivan Co.; Pnita and South Oil City, Ve- 
nango Co.; New Stanton, Westmoreland Co.; near Weiglestown, York 
Co. 

It is hardly possible to mention all the localities in the State but 
sandstone is quarried in the following counties; Allegheny, Armstrong 
Beaver, Bedford, Berks, Blair, Bradford, Bucks, Butler, Cambria, 
Carbon, Chester, Clearfield, Clinton, Columbia, Crawford, Delaware, 
Dauphin, Elk, Forest, Payette, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jeffer- 
son, Lackawanna, Lancaster, Lehigh, Luzerne, Lawrence, Lebanon, 
Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Monroe, Montgomery, Northumberland, 
Potter, Somerset, Susquehanna, Washington, Westmoreland. These 
localities represent a wide series of sandstones from practically all 
the great sandstone formations, from the carboniferous age down to 
the older Cambrian. 

PRODUCTION OF SAND AND GRAVEL. 

These materials are produced in such great abundance and of such 
wide-spread occurrence that the localities may scarcely be given. 
Practically all the rivers and streams of larger size yield these ma- 
terials. The demand for such material in Pennsylvania for struc- 
tural work and for many other purposes is very great and the supply 
commands a high price per ton, probably larger than in any other 
State. This is due to the superior quality of the material produced 
and the very large demand. 

Owing to the great value of the material and the importance of 
river sands in the trade the following observations on the sands of 
some Pennsylvania rivers are quoted from Bull. 430, U. S. Geol. 
Survey, pp. 388ff. E. W. Shaw. 

"The area includes Beaver, Allegheny, and Armstrong counties. 
The gravel and sand are found on terraces and in the river bottoms 
and are of two distinct types, glacial and nonglacial. The greatest 
amount of gravel digging has been done in Allegheny county. 



133 

"The sand and gravel resources of several near-by counties are 
almost as great as those of Allegheny county. Valuable deposits 
are found along the Allegheny and Ohio, on terraces and in the bot- 
tom lands, a large output being taken by dredges from the river beds. 

"This gravel is the most valuable in the region and extends from 
approximately 100 feet above low water to 50 feet below. The present 
thickness ranges up to about K50 feet, and probably the original thick- 
ness was slightly greater. 

"The lower reaches of the Monongahela and other tributary streams 
flow over beds of gravel which, except for their slight weathering, 
closely resemble the nonglacial high-terrace deposits. Near Pitts- 
burgh the base of this late nonglacial gravel lies about 45 to 50 feet 
below and the upper limit 100 feet above low water. Upstream the 
deposit rises and thins, and at the West Virginia line it has the thin- 
ness and other characters of an ordinary flood-plain deposit. The 
Monongahela docs not flow <>n a bed rock channel anywhere within 
the State of Pennsylvania. At many places the river has swung into 
the side of the valley, leaving the deposit on the opposite side, and 
has laid consolidated rock bare, but nowhere does hard rock extend 
across the full width of the river. 

"The late nonglacial gravel contains considerable bodies of clean 
sand and many of these have been worked. The sand differs from 
the sand of Allegheny river in being round grained. The pebbles arc 
also well rounded. Many of them are rather flat, but few are augidar. 
On the whole, there is much more fine material in this deposit than 
in the late glacial gravel. 

"Some of the Allegheny river sand is usable for grinding plate glass. 
Uniformity of size seems to be an important requirement of sand for 
this purpose. At Ford City large quantities are used until ground 
tine and then washed back into the river. However, much of the 
river sand is not suitable for this work. Certain sands seem to be 
desirable in purity, size, and angularity of grain and appear to the 
untrained eye to be like that which is used successfully, but are 
nevertheless worthless, because they contain here and there coarse 
grains known to the operators as "lice." The sand of the Allegheny 
Valley is also used for many oilier purposes, including molding, build- 
ing, and filtration. Furnace, engine, and fire sands and other kinds 
are produced in less quantity. The sand of the Monongahela river is 
used in grout, for furnace bottoms, in mills, and in street paving. 

"The high-terrace deposits of the Monongahela are less valuable 
than those of the Allegheny and have not been worked extensively. 
They are, however, used locally in many areas; for example, sand 
and silt from these terraces were used for the diamond of the new 
baseball park in Pittsburgh." 



134 

SILVER. 

Silver like gold has been found within the State but at no known 
locality in workable amount. In the lead mines at Phoenixville, at 
the Ecton mine, Montgomery county, at the New Britain mine, Bucks 
county, at the Pequea mines iu Lancaster county, the occurrence is 
given in Genth's Report B. At the Pequea mine Genth reports that 
numerous assays of silver-lead ores from here "will yield an average 
of 250-300 ounces per ton." This was in 1875. Later developments 
have not shown workings of these deposits though they may be worth 
a more careful investigation. 

A district which has excited much interest and even some occasional 
excitement as a possible silver producer is that of the copper hear- 
ing rock of the South Mountain in Adams and Franklin counties. 
There seem to be undoubted silver finds there and in some specimens 
are substantial nuggets of metallic silver with copper. Up to 1he 
present, however, no really well paying veins have been reported as 
being actually worked. These rocks in the South Mountain hear, as 
is well known anion", geologists, a very remarkable resemblence to the 
copper rocks of Lake Superior which carry some silver. 

Silver has also been reported from York county and other places 
but efforts to locate these places definitely have not been successful. 

The precautionary remarks under gold may well apply to silver, 
as really valuable deposits of silver in this State seem very unlikely 
to be ever found. 

SLATE. 

Slate is one of the important sources of mineral wealth in Pennsyl- 
vania, and while found in few places is quarried in large quantities 
and sold widely. The chief uses of slate are for covering and protec- 
tive purposes, such as roofing, and in addition Pennsylvania slate is 
very highly valued as material for black-boards and of less importance 
for school slates. 

Slate is used for flooring, -wainscoting, vats, tiles, sinks, laundry 
I ubs, grave vaults, sanitary ware, refrigerator shelves, flour bins, 
dough troughs, electrical switchboards, mantels, hearths, well caps, 
and billiard, laboratory, kitchen, and other (able tops, material for 
these uses is made in the form of slabs from I inch to 3 inches or more 
thick. Refuse slate and slates of various hues are ground to a tine 
powder and are used as paint fillers, linoleum tints and mortar colors. 

Slate is quarried at the following places in the State: Slatington, 
Lehigh county; Bangor, Chapman, Heimbach and Pen Argyl, North- 
ampton county; Delta and Peach Bottom, York county; in these 
localities as roofing slate and milling stock. In Carbon county it 
is quarried for roofing slate only. 

There are many other places where slate occurs in the State but 
not in a form valuable for working. In the coal regions is much rock 



135 

of a slaty character and in the older rocks of the South Mountain and 
adjacent valleys, aside from the localities above, are also many slaty 
locks; these, however, do not possess the requisite physical characters 
of a commercially valuable slate. Color, lustre and slaty cleavage 
are not always by themselves of sufficient value to classify a rock as 
a commercially valuable slate. The manner in which the rock stands 
up under weathering, the number and location of cracks and joints, 
the occurrence of objectionable flint veins, and lumps of pyrite; the 
extent and character of the cleavage (splitting) surface, the tough- 
ness, and elastic strength and finally the microscopic structure and 
chemical composition aie all of importance in determining the prob- 
able value of the rock. 

One of the most characteristic features of slate quarrying is the 
enormous waste by the careless manner in which it is handled, and 
the equally careless manner in which (he waste slate has been dumped 
over areas of workable rock, thus adding greatly to the cost of quarry- 
ing. The introduction of channeling machines and other special me- 
chanical devices has made possible a considerable reduction of waste 
in the quarrying. This waste is frequently 40-60 per cent, and may 
even reach 80 per cent, of the total slate quarried, this by bad hand- 
ling of the large blocks to make "squares." There is always waste 
from the presence of objectionable mineral, such as sulphide of iron, 
and flint, and also from the natural imperfections of the rock. 

While it is desirable that new deposits of workable slate may be 
uncovered, it is even more desirable that the deposits we have, both 
in Pennsylvania and elsewhere, shall be worked by the best mechani- 
cal devices so as to utilize as far as possible the slate yet unquar- 
ried. There are at present no geological evidences that really work- 
able slate deposits will be discovered in Hie State outside the present 
fields. There are slates of an imperfect character in some of the 
mountain counties of the State, such as Mifflin and also in Adams, 
Franklin and other regions in the South Mountain. These do not 
at present show any workable slate formations. 

It should be said as a precautionary measure that since slate is 
an alteration in most cases from shales or clay rocks that many hard 
shales are often supposed, by those not familiar with the subject. 
to be valuable as slate. 

Kinds of Slate produced in this State. The Lehigh-Northampton 
district produces a "hard" and a "soft" slate. The upper or north- 
ern belt of commercial slate consists of beds of relatively soft slate 
as at Bangor, East Bangor, Pen Argyl, Slatington, and Heimbach. 
The lower or southern belt consists of the "hard" slate as at Belfast 
and Chapman. These hard slates have been used for flagging, posts, 
steps and oilier forms in which hardness is a desideratum; this hard 
slate is usually cut wilh a diamond saw. Roofing slate in this south- 
ern belt is made from selected material. 



136 

The soft slates are used for tubs, vats, tiles, fireboards, billiard- 
tables, black-boards, and similar purposes. 

In color these Lehigh-Northampton slates, are nearly all of a dark 
gray, sometimes a bluish or dark greenish tone and generally of a 
very fine texture, and may be lustrous or otherwise. 

The Peach Hot lom slates of York county are of a dark gray color 
and are used largely for roofing purposes. They are less lissile than 
the Bangor slates and less flexible but are much tougher. 

SMITHSONITE. (See under lead and zinc.) 
SPHALERITE. (See under lead anil zinc.) 
srilENE. (Sec titanium.) 

STRONTIUM MINERALS. 
OBLBSTITE. 

This mineral is a sulphate of strontium, an element akin lo barium 
and calcium (lime,). The mineral has often a pale sky-blue color 
whence the name celestite. II has a high specific gravity and when 
heated in a blow-pipe flame imparts an intense crimson color to the 
flame. The nitrate of strontium is used for "red lire" 

The chief use of celestite and other strontium compounds is in the 
refining of beet sugar, since if strontium hydrate, Sr (OH),, is intro- 
duced into the sugar, it forms insoluble sugar compounds which settle 
out from the molasses; these insoluble ''saccharates" are then de- 
composed by carbonic acid. 

Strontium compounds are used in medicine as the salicylate, the 
bromide, etc. 

Celestite has been found sparingly in Pennsylvania, the chief lo- 
cality being al Hells Mills, Blair county, at the foot of Brush Moun- 
tain on (he west branch of the Little Juniata river, it occurs in 
shaly limestone in thin bands! less than an inch thick) of a pale blue 
fibrous character. This locality was formerly part of Huntingdon 
county and the original report of the locality was given as from that 
county. 

The mineral was analyzed in 1707 by the celebrated German chem- 
ist and mineralogist Klaproth, who found 

Strontia (SrO), 42 

Sulphuric Acid (SIX), 58 



100 
Sec Hep. 'I'. Sec il.i.l. Survey (p. 128). 

, Strontianite, the carbonate of Strontium, SrOO s , was found by H. 
C. Lewis at Mt. Union, Mifflin county. 



137 
TALC: SOAPSTONE. 

Talc is an hydrous silicate of magnesium. Ii is a mineral with a 
pronounced soapy feel, hence the name of soapstone. It often splits 
apart in layers like mica but is not elastic. It is often found in 
compact rock form. 

Steatite is a rather impure rock form of talc; pyrophyllite is a 
mineral very much like talc in appearance and is often in the trade 
used as talc, but is anhydrous silicate of aluminum. Talc is put 
on the market under several forms: as slabs, under the name of soap 
stone as rough tale, as ground talc. The sawed slabs are used for 
sinks, wash basins, stove lids, oven floors, table tops, switch boards 
and other electrical apparatus. Ground talc is used in toilet pre- 
parations, in paints, in boiler and steam-pipe coverings, as sizing 
in paper and cotton fabrics. It is also used illegally as an adultera- 
tion for foods, candy, paints, soaps, and in other ways. This is very 
much to be discouraged, and should be prohibited by law. 

OCCURRHNCE IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

Talc occurs generally wherever the serpentine rocks are found or 
in association with older crystalline locks. Talc is an alteration 
from other inagnesian rocks or minerals and is generally not found 
in granitic areas as these are not magnesian rocks. At present talc 
is produced commercially from the Lehigh-Northampton district. 

This locality is found in a narrow band of serpentine rocks along 
the southern slope of Chestnut Hill, north of Easton. There are some 
sixteen localities where the talc is found. The talc and serpentine 
here are believed to be the result of lnetamorphism between the old 
(Pre-Cambrian) limestones and pegmatite veins. 

I Details of this locality may be found in Report .">, Topographic and 
Geologic Survey Commission, 1911.) 

Talc also occurs in a rather large deposit on the Schuylkill river at 
Lafayette, above Philadelphia. This locality was formerly worked 
but was abandoned some years since, when the quarry caved in; it is 
now being cleaned out preparatory to reworking. Several varieties 
are found here. Theie are other reported localities for talc in Dela- 
ware, Chester and other counties. They are not worked commer- 
cially. 

There are some forms of mica which are apt to be confused with 
talc; these are, the fine scaly nmscovite, known at sencite, which has 
a slippery feel especially if moist; also the green, chlorite, micas 
which feel slippery and may be separated into smooth and brittle 
scales, like talc. 

Talc is very soft, softer than any of the mica minerals; it's exact 
chemical formula is H 2 Mg < i Si (Vi r When pure it contains 31.70 
per cent, magnesia, (MgO.,) this is not extracted commercially. 



138 

TITANIUM MINERALS. 

These are chiefly rutile, Ti0 2 ; titanite or sphene, a silico-titanate of 
lime; and titaniferous hematite or titaniferous magnetite. Titaniuni 
compounds, except sphene, are used for special alloys such as ferroti- 
tanium, of use in the steel industry, and rutile is used for making 
enamels, glazes and for coloring artificial teeth. 

Sphene which is of no practical value has been found in Philadel- 
phia, at Frankford; McKinuey's quarry, German town; in the neigh- 
borhood of East on and Bethlehem; at Van Arsdales limestone quarry, 
Bucks county; and a number of localities in Chester county. 

Rutile has been obtained in very beautiful specimens, and in rather 
large amount, loose in the soil in the Chester Valley near Parkes- 
burg, and also in Lancaster county; also in West Marlborough, Lon- 
don (jrove, Thornbury, West Bradford, and West Nottingham town- 
ships, Chester county; in Delaware county in Concord, Middletown, 
Edgemont, Birmingham and Darby townships. In York county 
1 utile occurs in slender hair-like crystals in quartz in some of the small 
brooks running into the Susquehanna river, as at Trout Bun. The 
color of rutile is dark brown to bright ruby red, generally in crystals; 
it has a heavy feel and is shiny like polished metal; it is harder than 
steel. 

Titaniferous hematite has not been observed in the State in large 
masses as iron ore, and is somewhat rare. Large crystalline pieces 
have been found in the mica schists of Fairmount Park and elsewhere 
in Philadelphia; in Delaware county in good sized crystals, at Dut- 
tons Mills and Marple and in sands near Media; in Chester county 
in West Town, Thornbury and East Bradford townships, and in 
other scattered localities. 

TOUUBENITE. (See uranium.) 

TOURMALINE. 

Tourmaline is a complex silicate of alumina and boric acid with the 
alkalies, such as soda and potash and at times lithium. It is a 
rather common mineral in the feldspar veins in granites and the mica 
rocks, and in the Pennsylvania varieties is generally seen as coal- 
black, longish crystals of a three or six-sided shape. It is a common 
mineral about Philadelphia in the numerous quarries from Chestnut 
Hill to Chester; in the rocks in Chester, Delaware, and adjacent conn 
ties; and in the crystalline rocks of the lower Susquehanna River 
region. Tourmaline is of considerable mineralogical interest and in 
most of its occurrences is of an attractive appearance. When of a 
proper color, such as pink, green, lavender, etc., it. is a valuable gem. 
No gem qualities have as yet been found in this State. 



139 

The gem varieties of tourmaline, such as the pink and green sorts 
contain Ihe rather rare all aline element lithium. This is not however 
extracted. 

The black variety of tourmaline is at times mistaken for coal, hav- 
ing very much the color and general appearance of the hard coals. It 
is so much harder, besides being incombustible, that there should 
be no difficulty in making the distinction between them. 



TRAP. DIABASE. GABBRO. 

"Trap" is a convenient general term applied to various sorts of 
dark, heavy, rather tine grained rocks used for road metal, etc. Dia- 
base and gabbro are names in common use among geologists to cover 
most traps. These are igneous rocks, that is those formed as the re- 
sult of fusion beneath the surface from the interior heat and have 
solidified beneath the surface. Some surface lavas are in such large 
masses that they aie very like trap in general appearance. The 
chief minerals present are pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, and gen- 
erally some magnetic iron ore. This makes a very hard, tough rock, 
used as load ballast, and for similar purposes. The chief uses are 
for road metal, railroad ballast, heavy wall or abutment material, 
when crushed as material for concrete, and as top dressing for roads; 
and in part as material for paving block. 

Traps are not used as a general building stone owing to their 
sombre color and to the difficulty of dressing them with the usual 
rock tools. 

Traps are often confused with granite; this is a mistake as true 
granite is a rock composed of quartz, orthoclase feldspar and mica 
or hornblende as accessory minerals. Sandstone, slates, and even 
limestones have been confused with genuine trap rock. 

Diabase and gabbro are found as "dykes" in many places in or 
about the areas of the Triassic rocks ; these dykes cut up through the 
surrounding rocks in masses of variable size and in many places ap- 
pear as rounded hills or elevations of a picturesque and beautiful 
character. 

Trap Rod: is quarried at Gettysburg, Adams county; near Birds- 
boro, Berks county; Point Peasant and Bushland, Bucks county; 
Rockville (Fort Hunter), Dauphin county; Glen Mills, Lockley, Bad- 
nor and Wayne, Delaware county; Wapwallopen, Luzerne county; 
Green Lane, Pottstown and Sumneytown, Montgomery county; 
Marysville, Perry county. 

Some of the rock reported as trap at the above localities may not 
be trap in the strict sense, but some other rock used as such. 



140 
URANIUM AND URANIUM MINERALS. 

The element uranium in the mineral forms is one of the most in- 
teresting of all natural substances. The mineral forms, while rare, 
are somewhal diverse and in the case of at least one, uraninite, are 
of a remarkable complexity of composition from the extraordinary 
number of elements contained in it. 

Some few years ago the gaseous elements argon and helium, pre- 
viously supposed to exist only in the atmosphere of the sun and per- 
haps in other celestial bodies, were found in the mineral uraninite 
as part of what was formerly supposed to be entirely the gas nitrogen. 
This is the only known leriestrial occurrence of these two gases. 

More recently the so-called X Kays, and still more recently radium 
have been found to lie universally present in uraninite and in prac- 
tically all uranium minerals. Some further details in regard to this 
will he given below. 

The element uranium, which is a metal, has of late years attracted 
some attention as one of many elements used to make some special 
kinds of alloys <>i' steel; ii is believed to impart particular qualities 
of strength ami hardness to the steel. In addition "uranium yellow." 
or sodium uianale, is used to produce (he peculiar fluorescent, green 
ish yellow, tints seen in some glasses and enamels, and to produce an 
orange or black color in porcelain. A small quantity is used in 
photographic work. 

The uranium minerals are chiefly as follows; all are found in Penn- 
sylvania: 

Uraninite.— "Pitch Blende," A uranate of [J0 2 . Usually also con 
tains lead, calcium, nitrogen (argon, helium), thorium, iron, copper, 
bismuth, zirconium and other elements. It is the chief "ore" or source 
of radium. Uraninite is a black, very heavy mineral of a shiny pitch 
like appearance; it is rarely in crystalline form and is often contused 
with chroniite. 

2. Autunitc is a calcium (lime) phospho-uranium mineral. It is 
usually seen in bright yellow scales of a pearly lustre. 

3. Torbernite is a copper phospho-uranium mineral; it is a bright 
vivid green in color and is generally seen in small squarish plates or 
pyramids. 

4. Oarnotite is a calcium — potassium vanadium — uranium mineral 
of the general appearance of autunite with which, in fact, it may be 
easily confused. 

There are other uranium minerals, some of rather uncertain chem- 
ical compositon, but the above are the most important. 



141 

RADIUM MINERALS. 

The subject of radium has become one of the great popular interest 
and it is worth while to note thai some radio-active minerals are 
found in this Slate though not in large amount, nor so far in quan- 
tity large enough to be of commercial value. Without entering into 
the very large Literature which has grown up around this subject it 
may be said that radium is almost always found in those minerals 
which cany the element uranium, one of the very rare metals. Other 
metallic elements such as the cerium group, another series of rare 
metals; columbiuni, tantalum and in some cases minerals which 
carry zinc are found to show some radio-activity. 

Radium is extracted by long and careful chemical treatment from 
the uranium minerals, especially from "pitch-blende" (uraninite). 
Mr. H. B. Boltwood, (Philos. Mag. April, l'Hir>. p. 509), has analyzed 
a great many minerals for radium and in the following table is given 
the results of his research; "the activity" is the activity of emanation 
contained in one gram of the mineral. (See also Min. Res. of The IT. 
S. 1904, T. S. (ieol. Surv., Washington, 1805). 

LIST OP URANIUM MINERALS EXAMINED FOR RADIO-ACTIVITY. 






Substance. 


Locality. 


O 

CI . 

a 

- 


Activity of ema- 
nation. 






71. or. 
69.61 

81.74 

51.68 

r.ri.Bi 
19.84 
33.17 

11.88 

10.44 

L0.84 

8.71 

7.64 

5.67 

1.52 

.7(1 

.13 

.11 

.31 

.30 

.007 


150.7 


Do 




147.1 






126.7 






131.8 






108.0 






112.5 






88.8 






61.1 




41.fi 






21.9 






23.2 






22.84 




(In 


1!).S 




do 


15.6 




. Ho 


11.95 




.In 


9.98 




. I ■ . 


1.14 






.S< 






.84 






.76 




.63 






.014 









The minerals marked * have been found in Pennsylvania, though 
not in large quantity; also a number not mentioned by Boltwood 
have been found in this State. Dr. E. T. Wherry lias gone over the 
list of Pennsylvania localities with great care and has published in 
The Journal of The Franklin Institute, Phila., January, 1908, a long 
list of such minerals found in Pennsylvania. 



142 

We quote as follows from Dr. Wherry's article: "In the State of 
Pennsylvania, and especially in the southeastern portion, uranium- 
bearing minerals are by no means uncommon. At present writing 
some fifty localities are known from which nearly twenty different 
species have been obtained, and every now and then new finds are re- 
ported. These occurrences are confined almost exclusively to the 
areas of highly metomorphosed schist and gneiss of our region, be- 
ing especially numerous where pegmatites are developed, as in South- 
ern Delaware county, although they are not infrequent in the city of 
Philadelphia itself." (See Jour. Franklin Inst., Vol. CLXV, No. 1, 
Jan., 1908, page 60). 

Uraninite is found in Fairmount Park; at Chester, Avondale, 
Swarthmore in Delaware county. Autunite and torbernite have been 
found in practically the same localities, and in additiou at Frank- 
ford, Broad and Olney streets, Wingohocking, Germantown, and 
other places in Philadelphia. In the gneisses and mica schists along 
Orum Creek all of these and other uranium minerals have been found. 
For more detailed localities references may be made to Dr. Wherry's 
article. 

CARNOTITE. 

Carnotite has been discovered in Pennsylvania by E. T. Wherry, 
(The American Journal of Science, Vol. XXXIIL, p. 574, June 1912). 
We quote as follows: 

"In Genth's Mineralogy of Pennsylvania autunite was stated to 
"have lately been found in a conglomerate from the neighborhood of 
Mauch Chunk," the exact locality being, however, unknown. Speci- 
mens labeled similarly are included in several of the old collections 
of Pennsylvania minerals, but a study of these and of a considerable 
quantity of material collected at what is probably the original local- 
ity, the eastern end of Mt. Pisgah, immediately north of the town of 
Mauch Chunk, has shown that the mineral in question is really to be 
classed as carnotite. 

"The carnotite occurs in scattered streaks and patches through- 
out the lower portion of the conglomerate, not extending far above 
the last red shale layer, although ledges of conglomerate continue to 
be exposed 600 feet farther to the summit of the ridge. As the road 
turns westward, gradually rising across the beds, the layer containing 
it can be followed to a distance of 2,000 feet, but then disappears be- 
neath the roadway, and no trace of the mineral could be found at 
the corresponding horizon where again exposed near Tamaqua, 10 
miles further west. 

"The analytical results are given in the first column of the accom- 
panying table, and the figures obtained by deducting the insoluble 
matter, iron oxide and water, and recalculating the remainder to 100 



143 

per cent., in the second. The iron is certainly present as linionite, 
and while a part of the water may belong to the carnotite, the amount 
in this form is indeterminate." 





1. 


2. 


Ratios. 


v 2 o 5 , 


7.2 
23. X 
6.1 
1.5 
[1.6] 
10.5 
49.3 


21.1 
69.8 


.116 
.243 

.07a 
.050 


( .129 
) 


1.00 


uo 3 




1>V,<).,, 






4.4 
4.7 


1.11 


H,0 


















100.0 


100.0 





WAVEILITE. (See phosphate minerals.) 



WULFENITE. 



This is a lead mineral, the molybdate, not important. Found at 
Phoenixville. 

ZINC. (See lead and zinc.) 



ZIRCON. 

A mineral consisting of the oxides of silicon aud zircon, or more 
probably of zirconium silicate. 

It has been seen in The South Mountain in Berks and other coun- 
ties. It is somewhat radio-active. (See uranium). 

Zircon also has been suggested as a possible source of material 
for mantels, such as the Welsbach type. 

It has been found at a number of places all in the western part 
of the State. It has no commercial value in Pennsylvania. 




(144) 



INDEX 



A - 

Page. 

Abrasives , ~ 

Adams County, Barite in , tj. 

Milestone in, *£? 

Brownstone in, 1~' 

Clay at Mount Holly Springs, & 

Copper in, 57 

Bpidote associated with copper, "l 

Gold in, 68 

Manganese m, »' 

Trap in, \f 

Tungsten, (Scheelite) in iu 

Allanite, \\ 

Analysis of, jj 

Allegheny County. Clay from, *> 

Coal in, *£ 

Petroleum in, 

Salt in, 120 

Sand and gravel in, Wjj 

Mountain Coke District ob 

River, sand and gravel from l*j 

Series, analyses of coals from, 54 

Coals of, 42 

Allentown, Allanite at, 14 

Limestone, 

Alluvial clay, °1 

Amazon stone, D - 

See Feldspar. 

Amethyst, I* 5 

See Quartz. 

Amphibole, 1 J 

See Asbestos. 

Analyses, Allanite, Ijj 

Anthracite coal, 4J 

Blue BUly, 121 

Blue carbonate iron ore, 72 

Brown ore , 73 

Brucite : 96 

Carnotite, 143 

Cements o£ Lehigh district, 93 

Chromite, 20 

Clay , 25 

Bolivar, 39 

Brookville , 37 

Fire clays, 33 

Flint clays, 34 

(ilass pot, 67 

Kaolin 27, 28 

Lower Kittanning, 38 

Terrace, from New Brighton, 31 

Feldspar, 62 

Canister, Canoe Mountain, 130 

Pattonville, 131 

Water Street Gap, 131 

Hematite 79 

Hudson River shales, 92 

Hummelstown brown stone, 129 

Indiauaite, 34 

(145) 

10 



146 

Page. 

Kaolinite, 34 

Kittanning quadrangle, coals from 54 

Lower Freeport coal , 52 

Limestone, Johnstown cement bed, 90 

Lehigh (cement rock), 

Lewistown , 

Nazareth, 93 

Pittsburg, 89 

Redstone, 

Sewickley 

Unlontown 88 

Upper Freeport, 89 

Upper Washington, 87 

Vanport, 90 

West of York, 85 

Manganese, psilomelane, 98 

Marl, 100 

Millerite, Cap mine, 114 

Ocher 106. 107 

Paint ore, Lehigh, 108 

Pittsburg foal 50, 51 

Pyrite, 120 

Red ore, 72 

Roasted ore, :. 72 

Rural Valley quadrangle, coals of 54 

Salt waters 119 

Shales, 126 

From Conemaugh formation 127 

Siderite, 73 

Sienna , 107 

Silica brick, 131 

Slate, ground 107 

Wa vellit e 117 

Anthracite coal, 40 

composition of, 49 

fields, 41 

Apatite 116 

from Berks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, Philadelphia, 

York counties, 116 

See Phosphate Minerals. 

Aquamarine 18 

Arkose, 128 

Armstrong County, coal in, 41 

lii lite in, 74 

Mount Savage clay in, 36 

Natural gas in 66 

sand and gravel in 132 

Vanporl limestone, analysis of 90 

Asbest. *s 16 

Obrysotile, found near Easton, and in Delaware County, 17 

found in Chester, Delaware, Lehigh, Lancaster, Montgomery 

counties , 16 

Uses of, '. 16 

Ashburner, C. A., on classification of coals, 47 

Autuuite, Uranium , 140 

Avondale, beryl at, 19 

Azurite, 57 

See Copper. 



B. 

Barite, 

found at Waynesboro, Chambersburg, New Hope, Jug Hollow, 
Marble Hall, Fort Littleton, Heidelburg, Sinking Valley, New 
Brighton, < Irbisonia 

found in Adams, Beaver, Berks, Blair, Franklin, Fulton, Hunt- 
ingdon, Montgomery counties 

1 s of, 

Harnett coal, Broad-Top region, 

Barytes, 



17 



17 
18 
42 
17 



147 

Page. 

17 

Beaver county, barite in, J' 

coal in, i\ 

limonite in, '* 

natural gas in , ► °° 

petroleum in, *,j? 

sand and gravel in, ^ 

Bed ford county , coal in , ** 

hematite in, i? 

limonite in, '* 

siderite in, 'Jt 

Bellevernon, glass sand at, "' 

Berks county, apatite in, ^ 

barite in, *' 

brownstone in, 1 ^ 

copper in, 5^ 

ga met in , °j> 

granite in, °° 

limonite in, J* 

magnesite in , * 

magnetite in j£ 



manganese in, 



139 



dap in, 

Beryl ]° 

Bethlehem, allanite at, *| 

Biotite, \™ 

mica ^ 

Bishops Mills, garnet at, j™ 

Bituminous coal ** 

Bitterns 117 - ™ 

Blacfchorse, corundum at, 60 

cyanite at 60 

Blair county, barite in, 17 

coal in, *1 

galena (load) in, 82 

limonite in 74 

limestone, Lewistown, analysis of , 86 

manganese in, 97 

zinc, (smithsonite) in 82 

(sphalerite) in, 83 

Blue Ball, Mount Savage clay at, 36 

Blue Billy, analysis of, 121 

Bluestone, 128 

found in Pike, Wayne, Adams, counties, 128 

Bradford, Bucks, Clinton, Fayette, Greene, Lacka- 
wanna. Luzerne, Lycoming, McKean, Potter, 
Schuylkill, Susquehanna, Westmoreland, Wyo- 
ming counties, 129 

See Sand. Sandstone. 

1 1< ilivar clay, analysis of, 39 

Bornite, 57 

Boyertown, magnetite at, 75, 77 

Bradford county, bluestone in, 129 

coal in 41 

galena (lead) in, 82 

hematite (iron) in, 78 

petroleum in, 115 

Brandywine Summit, kaolin at, 28 

Braunite, manganese 96 

Brick 19 

Broad-Top coal field , 42 

Coke District, 56 

Brookville, coal , 42 

clay, analysis at, 37 

Bromine, 119 

See Potash and Salines. 
Brown hematite, see Limonite. 

Brownstone 129 

analysis of from Hummelstown, 129 

found in Adams, Berks, Chester, Dauphin, Lebanon, Mont- 
gomery, York counties, 129 

Hummelstown , 129 

quarried at Phoenixville, Valley Forge, Mount Gretna, 
Schafferstown, Morristown, Port Kennedy, Fort Washing- 



148 

Page. 

ton, Birdsboro, Wohrsville, Grenoble Station, Lumber- 

ville, Neshaminy, Newtown, Tardley, 129 

Triassic formation, found in, 127 

see Silica, Sand. 

Brucite, 

analysis of, *" 

see Magnesia. 

Bucks county, barite in , 17 

blaestone in 

brownstonc in , 12" 

cyanite in, 61 

galena in , 

garnet in, 

granite in, 69 

manganese in, °7 

trap in, 139 

zinc, sphalerite, in 83 

Buhrstonc, see Abrasives. 

ore, "> '2 

analysis of 72 

see Iron Ores. 

Bustleton, cyanite near, 61 

Butler county, coal in, *J 

limonite in, g 

natural gas in, 66 

petroleum in, 115 



C. 

Cadmium, see Greenockite. 
Calamine, sec Lead and Zinc. 

Calcitc, 

see Limestone. 

Calcium fluorite, 

Cambria county, coal in 

limonite in , 

siderite in, 

Cambrian, barite in, 

Cameron county , coal in , 

Canoe Valley, limonite in, 

Carbon county, anthracite coal in 

Carnotitc (uranium) , 

analysis of 

Celestite, (strontium) Bells Mills, at 

Cement, analysis of Hudson River Shales, .. 

Lehigh region , 

analysis of 

materials, 

Natural, defined 

Portland , defined , 

rock, 

of Lehigh region, 

Centre county, coal in, 

hematite in , 

limonite in, 

manganese in , 

Mount Savage Clay in, 

Chalcocitc , 

Chalcopyrite, 

Charmian, copper near, 

Chambersburg, barite near, 

Chelsea, garnet at 

Chester county, allauite in, 

apatite in, 

asbestos in , 

barite, at Phocnixvillc Mines, 

brownstone in , 

chromite in , 

clay , kaolin in , 

copper in , 

corundum in, 

cyanite in, 

feldspar in, 

galena in, 



83 

64 

41 
74 
73 
17 
41 
74 
40 
140 
143 
134 
92 
91 
93 
19 
84 
84 
83 
91 
41 
78 
74 
97 
36 
57 
57 
58 
17 
66 
15 
116 
16 
17 
129 
21 
28 
57 



63 
82 



149 



Page. 

garnet in, 

granite in, 69 

lead, galena, in, 82 

wulfenite, in 83 

limonite in, ' 74 

magnesia in 

magnesite in, 96 

magnetite in, 75 

marble in, 99 

molybdenum, wulfenite, in 112 

Chlorite mica, 100 

Chrome iron , 

Chromium , 

uses of 20 

Chromite, 20 

analysis of 20 

found at Media, Mineral Hill, Marple, Blue Hill, Palmer's 

Mill 21 

found in Chester, Delaware, Lancaster counties, 21 

Chrysotilc, see Asbestos. 

Clarion coal , 42 

county , coal in , 41 

limonite in 74 

Mount Savage clay in, 36 

petroleum in , 115 

Clay, 21 

Adams county , *9 

Allegheny county, 35 

Alluvial, 31 

Analysis of, 25 

fire, 33 

Hint, 32 

from South Pork, 26 

Bolivar, analysis of, 39 

Brookville, analysis of , 37 

classification of, 23 

composition of, 21 

Conemaugh series, from, 35 

drift, 30 

fire, 31 

physical properties of, 

flint from Mercer shales at South Fork, 26 

uses of, 33 

glasspot, 67 

kinds of 26 

Lower Kittanniug, analysis of, 38 

Mount Holly 29 

Mount Savage (Mercer) , 36 

origin of, 22 

Pleistocene , 30 

Pottsville formation, from, 35 

residual, 23 

found in Adams, Berks, Blair, Chester, Cumberland, 

Delaware, Lancaster, Lehigh, Tork counties, 30 

river, 30 

sedimentary, 23, 35 

South Mountain, from, 

surface 30 

terrace , 30 

tests useful in prospecting for 24 

uses for, 23 

Clearfield-Center Coke District, 56 

county, glass sand in, 67 

limonite in 74 

Mount Savage clay in, 36 

siderite in, 73 

Climax, Mount Savage clay at, 36 

Clinton county, bluestone in, 129 

coal in, 41 

hematite in, 78 

Clintonite mica , 100 



150 

Page. 

Coal, 39 

bituminous, 41 

found in Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Bedford, Blfiir, 
Bradford, Butler, Cambria, Cameron, Centre, Clar- 
ion, Clinton, Crawford, Elk, Fayette, Forest, Ful- 
ton, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Law- 
rence. Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Somerset, Tioga, 

Venango, Washington, Westmoreland counties, 41 

classification <>f, 47 

composition of 45,47 

Lvkens or Pottsville 40 

Cobalt, ' 113 

Coke Districts : 56 

Colors, Mortar, HI 

Columbia county, anthracite coal in, 40 

hematite in 78 

zinc (sphalerite) in , 

Conemaugh series, 42 

analysis of shale from 125 

Clay from 35 

Connellsville Coke District 56 

Conshohocken, garnet at 66 

Coplay limestone, 91 

Copper ™ 

ores of, 57 

epidote mistaken for, 58 

found in Berks, Chester, Lancaster, Lebanon, Montgomery, 

York counties 57 

in Triassic "Red" rocks, 57 

Cornwall mine, copper at, 57 

type of iron ore, 75 

"tire at 75 

ore, analysis of, 76 

Corundum, 14, 59 

found in Chester, Delaware counties, SB 

Lehigh county, 60 

Unionville, at, 59 

Crawford county, coal in, 41 

marl in , 100 

petroleum in, 115 

Crum Creek, beryl at 18 

Cumberland county, garnet in, 65 

limonite in, 76 

manganese in, 97 

phosphate (wavcllite) in, 116 

Cuprite 57 

Curwensville, Mt. Savage, clay at, 36 

Cyanite, 60 

found in Bucks county , 60 

Cluster, Delaware counties 61 

at Black Horse, Darby, Leipersville, near Philadelphia, . 60 



D. 

Dagaschonda, glass sand at, 

Darby, cyanite near 

Dauphin county, anthracite coal in, 

brownstone in, 

limonite in, 

trap in, 

Delaware county, apatite in, 

asbestos in 

corundum in, 

chromite in, 

cyanite in, 

feldspar in, 

garnet in, 

granite in, 

kaolin in, 

magnesia in, 

manganite in, 

marble in, 

smaragdite in, 

trap in, 



60 

40 

129 

74 

139 

116 

16 

59 

21 

60 

63 



28 
96 
96 
99 
15 
139 



151 

Page. 

Devonian , copper reported from , 57 

Diabase, J ™ 

Dillsburg, copper at, ™ 

magnetite at oo oh 

Dolomite, ' 83 > 96 

Bee Limestone, Magnesium Minerals. 

Drift day, fO 

Dunbar, glass sand at, D ' 

E. 

Easton , asbestos near 17 

Ecton Mine, copper at, 57 

galena (lead) at, °2 

sphalerite (zinc) at, 83 

Elastic micas, 100 

Elk county, coal in, 41 

glass sand in, 67 

natural gas in, 66 

petroleum in , 115 

Emereld, 18 

Emery , 59 

Epidote, 61 

mistaken for copper, 58 

Espy mine, zinc (sphalerite) at, 83 

F. 

Falls Greek, glass sand at, 67 

Fairfield, cupper near, 5s 

Fayette county , bluestone in , 1*» 

coal in, 41 

natural gas in, TO 

petroleum in, 115 

Feldspar, 61 

analysis of, <jj 

irrence in Pennsylvania, 

found in Chester, Delaware countieB, 63 

Montgomery county 64 

mined at Avondale, New Garden, Toughenainon, West Cain, 

Blam, 64 

Mineral Hill, 63 

uses of, 

varieties of, 62 

Ferric oxide, analysis of, 107 

Fire .lay , 31 

analysis of, *> 

Mount Savage, 36 

physical properties of, 32 

Flagstone, : 13° 

sec Sandstone, Silica. 

Flint, 121 

clay, analysis of, 32 

uses of, 33 

Fluorite, 61 

Flourspar, 64 

Forest county, coal in, 41 

Fort Littler, m , barite at, 17 

Fossil Ore, use of for paint HI 

see hematite. 

Frankford , copper at 57 

Franklin county, barite in, 17 

gold in , 68 

lim.mite in 74 

Franklinite, 96 

Freemont, corundum near 

Freeport, Upper, limestone, 89 

Freestone 130 

Friedeusville, zinc (smithsonite) at, 82 

(sphalerite) at, 82 

Fritz town, magnetite at, 75 

Fulton coal, Broad-Top Field, 42 

county, barite in, 17 

coal in 

hematite in, 78 



152 



G. 

Page. 

Gabbro, 139 

( lalena 82 

found at Sinking Valley, New Britain, Phoenixville mine, Kcton 

Mine 82 

in Blair, Bradford, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, Mont- 
gomery. Schuylkill counties 82 

Galenite, see Lead and Zinc. 

Ganister 130 

analysis of from Canoe Mountain, 130 

Pattonville 130 

Water Street Gap 131 

see Silica 

Gap mine, copper at, 57 

millerite at, 114 

nickel at, 113 

Garnierite, Genthite, 114 

Garnet 65 

found at Hummelstown, Conshohocken (near), Bishop Mills, 

Swnrthmore, Philadelphia, Chelsea 65 

in Montgomery, Berks, Bucks, Northampton, Lancaster, 

Cumberland, Chester, Delaware counties, 66 

species of 65 

uses of, 65 

(Jas, Natural, 66 

found in Elk. Greene, MeKean, Warren, Indiana, Venan- 
go, Washington, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, 

Westmoreland counties, 66 

Genthite 114 

Gettysburg, copper at 57 

(Jlass materials 67 

pot clay , 67 

analysis of 67 

sand, found in Elk, Clearfield, Huntingdon, Mifflin, Venango coun- 
ties , 67 

from Oriskany sandstone, 67 

Gneiss, '68 

Gold, 68 

found in Philadelphia, Montgomery, Lancaster, Adams, Franklin 

counties, 68 

in South Mountain , 68 

Granite, 68 

found in Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lancaster, Lehigh, 

Montgomery, Philadelphia counties 69 

South Mountain 69 

Graphite, 69 

found at Chester Springs, Coventry, Kimberton, Byers, Phoe- 

nixville, Boyertown, 70 

uses of, 69 

Gravel, 128 

production of , 132 

Great limestone, Uniontown, 87 

Greene county, Milestone in, 127 

coal in , 41 

natural gas in, 66 

petroleum in, 115 

siderite in, 73 

Greenockite, 70 

Greensburg Coke District, 56 

Grindstones 14 

H. 

Halite, see potash. 

Hardness, scale of, 13 

Heavy spar, 17 

see Barite. 

Heidelburg, barite at, 17 

Ilcklerburg, Lower, limestone from, Lewisburg 85 

Hematite, 71, 78 

analysis of, 7!) 

brown , see limonite . 

found in Columbia, Montour, Centre, Fulton, Juniata, Mifflin, 
Northumberland, Perry, Snyder, Union, Huntingdon, Bed- 
ford, Bradford, Lycoming, Tioga counties, 78 



153 



Page. 

Clinton group, from, 78 

red, at Spang Hill, 79 

see Iron Ores. 

Hornblende, Jjj 

Hudson River Shales, analysis of , * ™ 

Huntingdon county, barite in, J7 

coal in, 

glass sand in, 67 

hematite in , 78 

limonite in , 74 

manganese in , 97 

siderite in , 73 

Hydrozincite, see Lead «nd Zinc. 

I. ' 

Indiana county, coal in, 41 

limonite in, J** 

natural gas in, 6o 

Indlanaite, analysis of, j»* 

Iron ores, '* 

chrome, *^ 

Cornwall, analysis of, 78 

in Pennsylvania, 71 

varieties of, 71 

Irwin Coke District, "" 

J. 

Jefferson county, coal in, H 

limonite in, 74 

Joanna station, magnetite at, 75 

Johnstown Cement lied, 

Lower Kittanning clay, near, 

analysis of, 38 

Jones mine (Warwick, near Joanna), magnetite at, 77 

Jug Hollow, barite at, 17 

Juniata county, hematite in, '8 

K. 

Kaolin, analysis of, 27. 28 

in Chester county , 28 

Delaware county, 28 

Pennsylvania 27 

see Clay. 

Kelly coal, Proad-Top field, 42 

Kaoliuite, analysis of 34 

Kish:ieoquillas Valley, limonite in, lj 

Kittanning quadrangle, coals, analysis of 54 

L. 

Lackawanna county, anthracite coal in, 40 

bluestone in , 129 

siderite in , 73 

Lancaster county, asbestos in, 16 

chromite in , 21 

copper in, 67 

garnet in, 66 

galena (lead) in, 82 

gold in, 68 

granite in 69 

lead (wulfenite) in, 83 

limonite in, 74 

magnesia (brucite) in, 96 

magnesite in, 96 

manganese in, 97 

millstones in, 14 

nickel (Gap Mine) in, 113 

py rrhotite in , 113 

zinc, (smithsonite) in, 82 

(sphalerite) in, 83 

mines, 82 



154 



Page. 

Lawrence county , coal in, 41 

limonite in, 74 

petroleum in , 116 

] .end 82 

found in Blair, Bradford, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, Montgomery, 

Schuylkill counties, 82, 83 

ores of, 82 

Leipersville, cyanite at 60 

brownstone 129 

Lebanon county, copper in, 57 

limonite in , 74 

magnetite in , 75 

Lehigh Cement Region '. 

analysis of cement from, 93 

cement rock, analysis of, ...' 94 

county , asbestos in , 

v corundum in , 59 

granite in 69 

limonite in, 74 

magnesia in, 96 

magnesite in, 96 

molybdenum (molybdenite) in, 112 

zinc (smithsonite) in, 82 

Gap, paint, ores, siderite, 73, 108 

limestone , 

Lewistown, limestone, 85 

barite in , 17 

Lime, 83 

classification of, 

Limestone, 83 

A lien town, 91 

Coplay, 91 

Great Valley, 91 

Johnstown Cement Bed, 90 

analysis of, 90 

Lehigh, 91 

analysis of, 94 

cement region , 91 

Lewistown , 85 

analysis of, 86 

from Huntingdon county, 86 

Lower Helderburg, 85 

Nazareth, analysis of, 93 

Pittsburgh, 89 

analysis of, 89 

Bedstone, 89 

analysis of, 89 

Sewickley, 88 

analysis of, 88 

Uniontown or Great Lime, 87 

analysis of, 88 

Upper Freeport, 89 

analysis of, 89 

Upper Washington, 87 

analysis of, 87 

uses of, 84 

Vauport, 90 

analysis of , 90 

Western Pennsylvania list of, 87 

York, west from, analysis of, 85 

Limonite, 71 

found in Armstrong, Beaver, Bedford, Blair, Berks, Butler, 
Cambria, Centre, Chester, Clearfield, Clarion, Cumberland, 
Dauphin, Franklin, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Law- 
rence, Lancaster, Lehigh, Lebanon, Montgomery, Mifflin, 

Northampton, Perry, York counties, 74 

Lithopone, barytes in, 18 

Lower Connellsville Coke District, .-. 56 

Freeport coal , 42 

analysis of 52 

Helderberg limestone, barite in, 17 

Kittanniug coal, 42 

analysis of, 54 



155 

Page. 

Luzerne county, anthracite coal in, 40 

Milestone In, 129 

trap in, 1*J 

Lycoming county, bluestone in, if" 

coal In, > " ** 

copper reported from 57 

hematite in, J8 

siderite In, 73 

Lykens coal, *0 

M. 

McKean county, bluestone in, 129 

coal in, *2 

natural gas m, «o 

petroleum in, H'' 

Mica 00 

uses of ivl 

Micaceous hematite, see hematite. 

Miemcline, 62 

Middle Kittanning coal 42 

MiUlin county, glass sand in, J» 

hematite in, 78 

limonite in , 74 

siderite in 73 

Millerite, !1 4 

Millstones, 1* 

Mineral Hill, corundum at, W> 

Paint, Lehigh Gap Paint Ore, 108 

Magnesia, dolomite, ;••• 

found in Lancaster, Chester, Lehigh, Delaware, Berks counties, 96 

minerals , 95 

uses of, 96 

Magnesite, 95 

Magnetite, <•> 

analysis of, 76 

Berks county in, 76 

Cornwall Mine, from, 71 

mined in Berks, Chester, Lebanon, York counties, 75 

Malachite, 57 

Manganese 96 

found in Adams, Berks, Blair, Centre, Cumberland, Hunt-^ 

iugdon, Lancaster, Lehigh, Northampton, York counties,.. 97 

in inerals , 96 

Psilouiclane, analysis of, 88 

Manganite, 96 

Mapleton, glass sand near, 67 

Marble, 98 

black, 99 

found in Chester, Delaware, Montgomery counties, 99 

Hall, barite at, 17 

Mareasite, 120 

Marl, 100 

analysis of, 100 

Crawford county, found in, 100 

Mauch Chunk shah', oilier in, 107 

Mercer county, coal in, 41 

petroleum in, 115 

M ineral Paint, 103 

classification of 104 

Molding sand 132 

Molybdate of lead ' 83 

Molybdenite, 112 

Molybdenum 112 

minerals, 112 

Monongahela formation, 42 

River, sand and gravel from, 133 

Montgomery county, apatite in, 116 

asbestos in, 16 

barite in, 17 

brownstone, 129 

copper in, 57 

lena in, 82 

gold in, 68 

granite in, 69 



156 



Page. 

limonite in, 74 

marble in , 99 

trap in, 140 

wnlfenite in 83, 112 

zinc (sphalerite) in , 83 

Moonstone , 62 

Moosehead, ocher at 107 

Morrison's Cove, limonite at, 74 

Mortal colors, Ill 

Mount Holly, clay at, 29 

phosphate (wavellite) at, 116 

Savage clay, 36 

found in Armstrong, Centre, Clearfield, Clarion coun- 
ties, 36 

Muscovite, 102 

N. 

Natural cement, defined, 84 

Nazareth limestone, analysis of, 93 

New Brighton, barite at 17 

fire clay from, analysis of, 31 

Britain, galena at, 82 

zinc (sphalerite), at, 83 

Hope, barite at, 17 

Nickel 113 

mined at Gap Mine, 114 

analysis of, 114 

ores of, Genthite, zaratite, 114 

Nittany Valley, limonite in, 74 

Norristown beds, brownstonc from 130 

Northampton county, garnet in 66 

limonite in, 74 

manganese minerals in 97 

molybdenum (molybdenite) in, 112 

Northumberland county, anthracite coal in, 40 

hematite in, 78 

O. 

Ocher, analysis of, 107 

ferric oxide in, 107 

found at Allen town, Heading, Moosehead, 107 

see Mineral Paints. 

Oil City, glass sand near, 67 

Oibisonia, barite at, ..._ 17 

Oriskany sandstone, barite in 17 

slnss sand from, 67 

Orthoclase, 61 

see Feldspar. 

Orton, Edward, classification of clays, 23 

P. 

Paint ores, 103 

analysis of, 108 

shales used as, 109 

see Mineral Paints. 

Paints, barite, use of, in, 18 

Petroleum , 114 

found in Allegheny, Beaver, Bradford, Butler, Clarion, Craw- 
ford, Elk, Fayette, Forest, Greene, Lawrence, McKcan, 

Mercer, Tioga,' Venango, Warren, Washington counties,.. 115 

sands, 115 

Pequea mines, galena at, 82 

lead (wulfenite) at, 83 

zinc (sphalerite) at, 83 

Pennsylvania, rank as a mineral producer, 11 

Perkiomeu , barite at, 17 

Permian coals, 39 

Perry county, hematite in, 78 

limonite in, 74 

paint ore in, Ill 

phosphate (wavellite) in, 116 

trap in, 140 



157 

Page. 

Philadelphia county, beryl in, 18 

cyanite in , 

gold from, 

granite in, ' °» 

tungsten (scheelite) in , 112 

Phlogopite 

mica, 191 

Phoenixville mines, °2 

lead (wulfenite) at, 83 

Phosphate minerals 11° 

Pike county , Milestone in , 128 

Pineville, barite at, 

Pittsburg coal , analysis of, -J3 

quality of, 43 

limestone, ° M 

Plagioclase, 61 

Pleistocene clays, 

Polianite, "o 

Portland cement, defined, 84 

Pot clay (glass) , 67 

Potter county, bluestone in, 129 

Pottsville, clay from the, 35 

coals, 40 

galena (lead) , 82 

Potash, 117 

salts, common, of, H" 

Pre-Cambrian , copper in, 

Psilomelane , 96 

see Manganese. 

Pyrite, I 20 

analysis of, 120 

Pyrolusite, no, wf 

see Manganese. 
Pyromorphite, see Lead. 

Pyrrhotite, J 20 

Gap mines, at, H* 

Pyroxene, 15 

Q. 

crystals, 

Quartzite, 128 

R. 

Radium, 141 

see Uranium. 

Reading, magnetite at, 75 

Red hematite, Spang Hill, at, 79 

Redstone limestone, 89 

Reynolds and Walston Coke District, 56 

Rhodochrosite 97 

Rhodonite, 98 

River clay, 30 

Ruby 59 

Rural Valley quadrangle, analyses of coals from, 54 

Rutile, see Titanium. 

S. 

Saint Charles, Mt. Savage clay at, 36 

Saline minerals, H' 

Salt, 118 

waters, analysis of, 119 

see Potash. 

Sand, 128 

glass , "7 

lime brick, Hummelstown, made at, 19 

molding, 

where found , 132 

polishing and grinding, 14 

production of, 132 

see Silica. 



15S 

Page. 

Sandstone, 127, 138 

whir:' quarried, 182 

gee flagstone, freestone, ganister, gravel, quartzite, arkose, 
bluestone, brownstone, silica. 

Sapphire, 69 

Sinking Valley, zinc (sphalerite) in, s - 

Scale of hardness 13 

ScheeUte 112 

Schuylkill county, anthracite coal in, 

bluestone in, 129 

galena in 

Sedimentary clays W 

Serpentine 123 

as building material, 

Easton, near, 124 

Sewickley limestone, 88 

Shales , 125 

analysis of 127 

brick , 127 

Oonemaugh, analysis of, 127 

paint, L09 

black 109 

red 110 

yellow 110 

Shenandoah limestone, ocher in, 107 

Sliannonville, galena at 

wulfenite at, 83 

Shimerville, corundum at, 00 

Siderite 71 

analysis of 73 

found in Bedford, Cambria, Clearfield, Fayette, Fulton, Hunt- 
ingdon, Mifflin, Lackawanna , Lycoming, Somerset, Greene, 

Washington counties, 73 

paint ores 108 

Vanport limestone, on, 72 

see Iron Ores. 

Sienna, 100 

analysis of, 107 

Silica , 127 

brick, analysis of, 131 

Silver 132 

Sinking Valley, barite in, 17 

galena in , 82 

umonite in, 74 

zinc (smithsonite) in, 82 

(sphalerite) in, 83 

Slate, 126, lil 

found in Lehigh, Northampton, Carbon, York counties 134 

ground, analysis of, 107 

kind of 135 

quarried at Bangor, Chapman, Delta, Heimbach, Pen Argyl, 

Peach Bottom, Slatingtoii, 

uses of, 134 

Smaragdite 15 

Smithsonite, 82 

see Lead and Zinc. 

Smoky quartz, 123 

Snyder county, hematite in, 78 

Soapstone, 137 

Somerset county, coal in, 41 

siderite in, 73 

Dniontown limestone, analysis of, 88 

South Fork, flint clay from, 26 

South Mountain, clay from, 29 

epidote from, 61 

gold in 68 

granite in, 69 

hornblende in ore deposits 15 

silver in 134 

Spang Hill, hematite at, 79 

Specular iron hit, see hematite. 

Sphalerite 82 

see Lead and Zinc. 

Spessarite, 96 



15!) 

Page. 
Sphene, see Titanium. 

Steatite 1*> 

Stockton beds, brownstone from J^o 

Stolzite 112 

Strontium , '•" 

minerals of, !•>'> 

Sullivan county, anthracite coal in, 40 

copper reported from 57 

Sun stone 

Surface clays *' 

Susquehanna county, anthracite coal in 40 

bluestone in, 1"" 

T. 

Talc 137 

Kaston, near 137 

Lafayette, at 137 

occurrences in Pennsylvania, 137 

Tephn dte 96 

Thulite, see Epidote. 

Tioga county, coal in, 42 

hematite in 78 

petroleum in, 115 

Titanite 1** 

Titanium • ■ ■ ■ J*? 

of (rutile, sphene, titaniferous hematite), l» 

Torbernite (uranium), 14" 

see Uranium. 

Tourmaline • 138 

Transmission, Letter of » 

Transported clays 3o 

Trap, 139 

' found in Adams, Berks, Hacks, Dauphin, Delaware, Luzerne, 

Montgomery, Perry counties 139,140 

Trenton limestone jj5 

Triassic system , brownstone from 129 



copper in, 



67 



epidote in, 61 

ssnlarite in "5 

Tungsten 

ores of (stolzite, scheelite) 112 

U. 

Umber, 106 

Union county, hematite in, 78 

Uniontown limestone 87 

lysis of 88 

Upper Conncllsvillc Coke District 56 

Freeporl coal 42 

Kittanning coal 42 

I ' ranium 140 

minerals (Uranite, Pitch Blende, Autunite, Torbernite, Carno- 

tite), 140 

V. 

Vanport limestone, 90 

buhrstone ore above, 14 

Venango county, coal in, 42 

glass sand in, 67 

natural gas in, 66 

petroleum in, 115 

Verdolite 99 

Villagegreen, corundum near, 59 

Vineyard, glass sand at, 67 

W. 

Wad , 96 

Waynesboro, ha rite near, 17 

Wairen county, natural gas in, 66 

petroleum in, 115 



160 



Page. 

Warwick mine, 77 

magnetite at, 71 

Washington coal , 45 

county, coal in, 41 

natural gas in, 66 

petroleum in , 115 

siderate in , 73 

TJniontown limestone in, analysis of, 

Upper limestone , 87 

analysis of, 87 

Wavellite, Chester county, analysis of 117 

found in Cumberland, Chester, Lancaster, Perry counties, ... 116 
sec Phosphate. 

Wayne county, anthracite coal in, 40 

bluestone in , 128 

Waynesburg coal, 45 

"A" coal, 45 

West Chester township, corundum in, 60 

Westmoreland county, bluestone in, 129 

coal in, 41 

natural gas in , 66 

Wheatfield mines, 76 

Wheatley mines, copper at, 57 

wulfenite at, 

Wissahickon, copper at, 57 

Woodland, Mt. Savage clay at, 36 

Woods chrome mine, 21 

Wulfenite, 83, 112, 143 

Wyoming county, anthracite coal in, 40 

bluestone in, 129 

York county, apatite in, 116 

brownstoue in, 129 

copper in 57 

limonite in , 74 

magnetite in , 77 

manganese in, 97 

Z. 

Zaratite (nickel), 114 

Zinc, 82 

found in Clair, Bucks, Columbia, Lancaster, Lehigh, Montgomery 
counties, 82, 83 

ores of, 82 

see Lead and Zinc. 

Zincblende, 82 

Zircon, 143 

Zorsite, see Epidote.